Biological activity of chernozems typical of different farming practices
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The study aimed to determine the impact of different farming practices (organic and intensive) on the dynamics of potential biological activity of typical chernozem (mollisol). Comparative-profile-genetic, microbiological and mathematical-statistical methods were used for the research. The data obtained during the study of soil biological activity for 2018–2020 were analyzed. The highest popu-lation density of Collembola was observed in the variant of fallow soil in the layer of 10–20 cm (111 indiv. dm3 –1) with the lowest amount of Oribatida (32 indiv. dm3 –1). Under conditions of agrogenic use of soils, the predominance of Oribatida over Collembola was recorded. When using green manure in a soil layer of 0–10 cm, the number of Oribatida is 125 indiv. dm3 –1, while Collembola – 50 indiv. dm3 –1. Agrogenic use of chernozems reduces the number of microscopic fungi. The intensive farming system is the reason for the decrease in the number of all ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms in the 0–10 cm layer while increasing their number in the layer of 20–30 cm. Variants of the organic system of agriculture, especially with the use of green manure, contribute to the increase in the number of actinomycetes and amylolytic microbiota, as well as a short-term sharp increase in the number of oligonitrophilic microbiota. Agricultural use of soils reduces the activity of enzymes such as invertase, protease, dehydrogenase and cellulase. However, the activity of urease and catalase – increases in the soils of the organic system of agriculture. Discriminant analysis of biological activity identified three groups of soils, corresponding to different farming systems. This confirms the possibility of using the studied indicators for soil biodiagnostics.