Assessment of essential oil yield in three mint species in the climatic conditions of Central Russia
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The aim of the study was to study the harvest time for the essential oil yield and its qualitative composition in three species of mint Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint), M. spicata L. (Spearmint) and M. arvensis var. piperascens Malinv. ex. Holmes (Sakhalinmint). In 2018, the research was performed with plants of second year of vegetation in the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Immunity of the NV Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of the RAS. As a result, it was found that the optimal harvest period for Sakhalinmint and Peppermint should be recommended in a phase of mass flowering: the yield of fresh raw materials was 509–479 g m-2 , air-dry raw materials - 110–107 g m-2 ; the content of essential oil in the aboveground part (a mixture of leaves and inflorescences) of plants - 3.24–4.01%; the proportion of the main component of essential oil (menthol) - 57.3–50.2%. In Spearmint, the optimum time for harvesting is the phase of budding. The content of the main component of essential oil (carvon) was maximum - 67.9%, and the yield of essential oil was 2.6%, while the yield was 381 g m-2 of fresh raw materials (81.9 g m-2 of air-dry raw materials) at harvesting in this ontogenesis stage. Analysis of the secretory apparatus parameters on a surface of some green tissues in three mint species showed that the maximum density of secretory glands on both sides of the leaf is characteristic of peppermint, which provides a higher yield of essential oil in this type of mint. The study allowed determining the optimal harvesting time for highly productive mint species when they are grown in the conditions of Central Russia. The raw materials of these mint species can be used for the production of essential oils and are of interest for pharmacology and the perfume and cosmetics industry.