Effect of surface drip irrigation and cultivars on physiological state and productivity of faba bean crop
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Lack of water is one of the main abiotic factors that affect the change of plant production processes by imposing certain morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. The aim of the research conducted in 2019–2020 was to study the change in the productivity and yield of green beans of different cultivars of Vicia faba L. var. Major and the formation of a symbiotic system on surface drip irrigation. The results of the biometric analysis showed that the cultivation of faba beans under irrigation contributes to an increasing in plant height by 4.7–12.2%, the number of branches per plant increased by 17.3–30.0%, the leaf area of faba bean crops increased by 21.2–24.9%. The content of total chlorophyll increasing by 16.9–40.5%. Antioxidant enzymes activity decreased depending on the cultivar Catalase activity by 10.6–22.5%, Guaiacol peroxidase – 19.4–25.9%, Superoxide dismutase – 19.3–24.4%. The yield of green faba beans (Vicia faba L.) increased by 31.3–39.2%. Growing faba beans on irrigation helped to reduce the protein content by 1.4–2.1 %, but to reduce the dry matter content by 1.3–2.0%, which was significant in both indicators. In general, drip irrigation contributed to the improved development of bean-rhizobial symbiosis of faba bean plants. The mass of the nodules on the drip irrigation increased by 0.3 g plant–1 regardless of the cultivar, and their number is 1.5–9.0 pcs plant–1 . The presented results give an idea of the functioning of the legume agrocenosis and the impact of irrigation on the main quality indicators of the product. Further research is to study the regimes (rates, timing, and multiplicity) of irrigation.