Effects of α-amylase, endo-xylanase and exoprotease combination on dough properties and bread quality
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The enzymes composition is an actual alternative to chemicals to improve functional properties of flours and to generate changes in the structure of the dough and bread quality. The objective of this study was to analyze the individual and synergistic effects of enzymes preparation (α-amylase, endo-xylanase and exoprotease), newly produced in Russia, on dough properties and bread quality made from wheat flour with different amylolytic activity. Reofermentometric results revealed decreases in gas-forming capacity of dough by 10.0–13.9% when single α-amylase preparates were used. The α-amylase addition had significant effect on gas retention coefficient in flour possessed low amylolytic activity. The effect of endo-xylanase and exoprotease on hydration and amount of wheat gluten was established. The fractional composition of gluten proteins in the dough made with combination of endo-xylanase and exoprotease was established using Lowry method immediately after kneading and after fermentation. It was found that mainly water-soluble, alcohol-soluble and alkaline-soluble proteins were undergone by transformation. The bread with enzymes had a higher specific volume, porosity and aldehyde content and lower shape stability indicator than the control bread made without enzymes. Bread with enzymes was characterized by tenderer and not crumbly crumb with developed thin-walled uniform porosity compared to the control. The crusts were more brightly colored. The combined usage of α-amylase and endo-xylanase and exoprotease retarded bread staling during 5-day storage period. New enzyme composition may be a potentially strong candidate for future applications in the bread-making industry.