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dc.contributor.advisorArney, David
dc.contributor.advisorKass, Marko
dc.contributor.advisorKaart, Tanel
dc.contributor.authorSoonberg, Maria
dc.contributor.otherRaussi, Satu (opponent)
dc.date.accessioned2021-03-30T06:31:31Z
dc.date.available2021-03-30T06:31:31Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.isbn978-9949-698-72-1
dc.identifier.issn2382-7076
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10492/6403
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.15159/emu.68
dc.descriptionA Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture.eng
dc.description.abstractAnimal welfare is a concern for many people around the world and it is believed by consumers that higher welfare standards on farms will ensure high quality, healthy and safe food. Precision livestock farming is becoming more popular and feeding management systems have changed accordingly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect such changes in farm management have on cows’ behaviour and welfare. Cows activity (I, III), feeding, aggressive (II, III) and social behaviour were assessed to see how grouping affects cows at different ages, milk yields (high and low yielding cows) and during the transition period. Cows in study I and III had activity monitors attached to their hind legs to measure their activity, in studies II and III feeding and aggressive behaviours were measured with video cameras, and in study III social behaviour was measured visually by recording sample cows’ two closest neighbours. It was concluded that when cows feeding place changes (because of grouping) their activity will increase. For primiparous cows this increase was by a factor of 1.44 and for multiparous cows 0.36. When cows were moved to a dried off group their activity increased at first, but in general it was lower in the dried off area than in the main herd. In study II high and low yielding cows forage feeding time was assessed. High yielding cows received extra concentrate from a concentrate feeder. Low yielding cows did not. No statistical difference was found between those two groups for forage feeding times. Neither the feeding, walking, standing nor drinking times were significantly affected by additional feeding of concentrates. In study III cows were found to be more active after calving compared to before calving. The cows, who were more aggressive in cubicles were also more aggressive in the strawyard (P = 0.033). Heifers received more aggressive acts than cows (P < 0.001). Sample cows distance to their closest nearest neighbour was one meter, and second nearest neighbour was 0.15 m further away in the cubicle housing compared to the strawyard. After calving, when cows were sent to main herd, primiparous cows spent less time feeding (mean time cow was recorded feeding 9.0%) than multiparous cows (mean time cow was recorded feeding 31.7%)(P = 0.042), especially on the first day in the main herd and they were observed in the passageway more often than the multiparous cows. It was concluded that activity, aggression and social bonds are affected by grouping. Knowing this, farmers can plan their farm management system so that cows can be grouped and regrouped less often. This would help cows to have stronger social relationships, experience fewer aggressive encounters and in general have a more stress free life.eng
dc.description.abstractKogu maailmas tunnevad inimesed muret loomade heaolu pärast.Tarbijad usuvad, et kõrgemad heaolu standardid loomapidamises tagavad toodangu parema kvaliteedi, tervislikkuse ja ohutuse. Sellega seoses on lehmade täppispidamine muutumas üha populaarsemaks ja söötmissüsteemid muutuvad koos sellega. Antud doktoritöö eesmärk oli hinnata kuidas loomade pidamine mõjutab nende käitumist ja heaolu. Grupeerimise mõju hindamiseks mõõdeti erinevates vanusegruppides (mullikad/esmaspoegijad ja korduvpoeginud lehmad), erineva piimatoodanguga (suure ja madala toodanguga lehmad) ja üleminekuperioodil olevate lehmade aktiivsust (katse I, III), agressiivsust (katse II, III), söömis- (katse II) ja sotsiaalset käitumist (katse III). Katses I ja III mõõdeti lehmade aktiivsust tagajala külge kinnitatud aktiivsusmõõtjaga,katses II ja III hinnati lehmade söömust ja agressiivsust videokaamera salvestiste alusel, katses III hinnati lehmade sotsiaalset käitumist märkides üles nende kaks lähimat naabrit. Katsetulemustest selgus, et lehmade söötmiskoha (grupi) muutus suurendas nende aktiivsust. Esmaspoeginud lehmadel tõusis aktiivsus 1,44 ja korduvpoeginud lehmadel 0,36 võrra. Lehma viimisel kinnislehmade gruppi esialgu ta aktiivsus tõusis kuid üldine aktiivsus kinnislehmade grupis oli madalam kui põhikarjas. Katses II hindasime koresööda söömisele kuluvat aega suure- ja madalatoodangulistel lehmadel. Suuretoodangulised lehmad said lisajõusööta automatiseeritud jõusööda selvelatritest, madalatoodangulised lehmad lisajõusööta ei saanud. Koresööda söömisele kulutatud aeg kahe grupi vahel ei erinenud. Lisajõusööda saamine ei mõjutanud oluliselt ka kõndimisele, seismisele ega joomisele kulutatud aega. Katse III näitas, et võrreldes poegimiseelse ajaga olid lehmad peale poegimist aktiivsemad. Agressiooni suunati rohkem mullikate kui lehmade vastu (P < 0,001), lehmad, kes olid agressiivsemad asemetega grupis, olid seda ka põhuallapanuga grupis (P = 0,033). Keskmiselt oli lehma esimene (lähim) naaber temast ühe meetri kaugusel nii asemetega kui põhuallapanuga grupis; teine naaber viibis asemetega grupis 0,15 meetrit kaugemal kui põhuallapanuga grupis. Peale põhikarja toomist käisid esmaspoeginud lehmad (keskmine söödalava juures veedetud aeg 9,0%) söömas vähem kordi kui korduvpoeginud lehmad (keskmine söödalava juures veedetud aeg 31,7%) (P = 0,042), eriti esimesel põhikarja saabumise päeval veetes rohkem aega vahekäigus. Saadud tulemuste põhjal saame järeldada, et grupeerimine mõjutab lehmade aktiivsust, agressiivsust ja omavahelisi sotsiaalseid suhteid. Seda teades saab loomapidaja majandada oma loomi nii, et neid grupeeritakse võimalikult vähe. Viimane parandab lehmade sotsiaalseid suhteid, vähendab agressiooni ja grupeerimisest põhjustatud stressi.est
dc.description.sponsorshipPublication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences, and the Graduate School in Biomedicine and Biotechnology (ASTRA Value-chain based bio-economy).eng
dc.publisherEesti Maaülikool
dc.relation.ispartofseriesEesti Maaülikooli doktoritöödest
dc.rights© Maria Soonberg, 2021
dc.rights.urihttps://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/ee/Riigikogu/act/519062017005/consolide
dc.subjectdissertationseng
dc.subjectdissertatsioonidest
dc.subjectRoheline Ülikool (töö toetab EMÜ Rohelise Ülikooli põhimõtteid)est
dc.subjectGreen University (thesis is related to EMÜ Green University iniciative’s aims)eng
dc.subjectveisekasvatusest
dc.subjectveisest
dc.subjectpiimakariest
dc.subjectgrupeerimineest
dc.subjectloomade käitumineest
dc.subjectbovine husbandryeng
dc.subjectbovineeng
dc.subjectdairy cattleeng
dc.subjectgroupingeng
dc.subjectanimal behavioreng
dc.titleRegrouping effects on behaviour and welfare of dairy cowseng
dc.title.alternativeGrupeerimise mõju piimalehmade käitumisele ja heaoluleest
dc.typeDoctoral Thesiseng
dc.date.defensed2021-04-26
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD


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