Precision agriculture in the North of Kazakhstan
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The precision farming system has been used in the North of Kazakhstan where specialized landfill on an area of 3000 ha was formed. In the fields of the landfill, detailed agrochemical survey (accuracy) of soil samples of the southern carbonate chernozem for grid cells 1 ha and 5 ha of fieldnet treatments with were conducted. Further differentiated fertilization was carried out both with the help of Amazone ZA-M and with the use of the Bourgault sowing complex. Monitoring of the state of the soil, plant development and work performed was carried out both by traditional methods and using modern remote sensing data. After the introduction of precision farming technologies in the North Kazakhstan from 2019 precision farming technologies has been used. As a result of the work carried out only from the introduction of one element of precision farming – differentiated rationing of fertilizer application, an increase in the yield of spring wheat 'Astana' by 9.6–19.2% to the standard economic technology was established. Research results have shown that the share contribution with a high yield of 2000 kg ha–1 was significant for a sampling grid cells 1 ha of fieldnet (40–47%) and less significant for a sampling grid cells 5 ha of fieldnet (15–20%). Hence it follows that the choice of a fieldnet with grid cells 1 ha is more preferable. Due to the use of a differentiated application system the savings from reducing the consumption of mineral fertilizers for the unit of the relay have had 69.26 EUR. Our novel research has shown that for characterizing the state of plants an assessment is given which was performed using test sites 1 and 5 ha grid cells of fieldnet treatments. In this case, we have used the vegetation indices NDVI – Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. At the same time, this index has changed relatively synchronously with the results of the yield of the spring wheat.