Review: Managing weed populations through alteration of the cropping pattern
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Alteration of the cropping pattern, such as manipulation of sowing date, increasing crop sowing rate, alteration in population density and row spacing, the use of cultivars that are more competitive and proper fertilization, particularly nitrogen application, have been the focus of many research studies. These studies aimed for the goal of boosting the crop's capacity to provide domination over weeds and surviving competitive stress. Modifications in sowing date might have tremendously influence on plants growth, but also have a prominent influence on weed infestation, crop development and yield. Changes in sowing dates are important to prevent the durations of considerable weed risks and consequently raise crop yield. High sowing rates increase the capacity of crops to overcome weeds and preserve yield loss under moderate weediness of the crop. Further, increased crop density, crop uniformity with alteration in row spacing had powerful and constant depressing outcomes on weed biomass and affirmative outcomes on biomass and yield of the crop. Competing varieties might be more efficient in the reduction of the capability of weeds throughout competitiveness for restricted sources. Finally, nutrient balance is frequently essential for crop-weed competition, and controlling the fertilizer applications in space and time might be a technique for useful weed suppression. Hence, the manipulation of certain agronomic integrated with competitive cultivar is a promising way to reduce weed interference in crops and to improve the sustainability of cropping systems through less reliance on herbicides.