Optimization of options for differential application of nitrogen fertilizers in the precision farming system
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This paper aims to present the use of various treatments for the differential application of nitrogen in the precision farming system. To assess the state of the vegetation cover, both ground-based observations and associated remote sensing methods were used. Assessment of the state of plants (Menkovsky of AFI, 2009–2011) was carried out according to the phases of their growth and development using an N-tester in the field, as well as analysis of plant samples in a specialized laboratory. Remote sensing was carried out at the time of the analysis of plant samples using unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with cameras that allow shooting in different areas of the spectrum. The test sites with predetermined doses of nitrogen fertilizers for decrypt the obtained images were used. It is shown that for differential application of nitrogen fertilizers in spring wheat crops it is advisable to use the optical characteristics of the state of plants performed using calibration test sites. We have found that the maximum yield in the differentiated nitrogen applications treatment (TK-4) was 4510 kg per hectare (kg ha–1 ). At the same time, the minimum in the TK1 treatment was 3780 kg ha–1 . On average, over the years of research differentiated fertilizer application increased the collection of protein per hectare by 15–17%. In the TK-4 treatment for three years, a grain was obtained that corresponded to the first quality class (exceed 14%) in terms of protein content. Our novel research has shown that for characterizing the state of plants an assessment is given which was performed using calibration test sites.