Possibilities to identify defective electric automobile batteries
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A pack of batteries is one of the most important and expensive assemblies for an electric vehicle. A pack of batteries is comprised of several batteries connected in series. The number of the batteries connected depends on the operating voltage of the vehicle’s on-board system as well as on the individual characteristics of the batteries used, e.g. the operating voltage of a single cell. One or several cells of a pack of batteries could be damaged if improperly exploiting an electric vehicle– excessively discharging the batteries or overloading the electric vehicle. If a self-converted vehicle does not use an intellectual BMS (battery management system) that can identify and register voltage drop for any individual cell in the high-load regime, e.g. when accelerating, it is difficult to identify and change the cells damaged. In case a cell does not demonstrate a complete failure, it is almost impossible to identify a defect in any regime other than the load regime. The research developed and compared three different methods for identifying defective battery cells. The methods were approbated on a converted Renault Clio. The experiment involved making voltage measurements in road tests, running the electric vehicle on a roll test bench and making voltage measurements of maximally discharged batteries in the no-load regime. A comparison of the measurement results revealed that the measurements made in the road tests were the most accurate and useful. After the experiment, the defective battery cells were replaced, thereby restoring the performance of the battery pack.