POST herbicide programme for effective weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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Field experiments were conducted during two winter wheat - growing seasons to evaluate the efficacy of some new POST herbicides and herbicide combinations for those effective controls of weeds in winter wheat crops in the Republic of Macedonia. The weed population consisted mainly of annua l winter and spring and some perennial weeds. Weediness comprised 116 and 208 plants m - 2 in 2012 – 2013 and 2013 – 2014, respectively, in the Skopje region, and 93 and 114 plants m - 2 in 2012 – 2013 and 2013 – 2014, respectively, in the Probištip region. All POST h erbicides effectively reduced dominant weeds density ( > 93%) in the Skopje region in both years, as well as in the Probištip region in 2012 – 2013, but not in 2013 – 2014. In this year, lower temperature directly following application decreased efficacy of POS T applied herbicides, which provided control of Lolium perenne that was between 76 and 84%; control of A. ludoviciana was less than 85%; control of B. radians was no more than 83% and no one treatment controlled P. convolvulus more than 82%. Wheat yields i n the Skopje region were not significant among years for the different POST herbicide applications and ranged between 3,580 and 3,720 kg ha - 1 in 2012 – 2013, and between 3,760 and 3,910 kg ha - 1 in 2013 – 2014. A significant treatment by year interaction resulted in two distinct years for wheat yields in the Probištip region with POST herbicides. In 2012 – 2013, wheat yields were between 3,230 and 3,390 kg ha - 1 , but in 2013 – 2014, wheat yields ranged from 3,060 to 3,4 90 kg ha - 1 and weed - free control showed a significant higher wheat yield compared to all evaluated herbicides.