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Assessment of environmental impacts: a life cycle analysis of wheat and rice production in Madhya Pradesh




Kättesaadav alates


Khangar, N.S.
Thangavel, M.

Ajakirja pealkiri

Ajakirja ISSN

Köite pealkiri


Estonian University of Life Sciences


The production of cereals is one of the primary activities that is responsible for most of the environmental degradation that is caused by agricultural activities. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the ecosystem & resource emissions along with emissions affecting human health, causing due to agricultural activities. LCA is used to conduct an analysis of 17 types of emissions caused by rice and wheat production per hectare in Madhya Pradesh. Based on LCIA and Monte Carlo simulation, the study provides valuable insights into the regional environmental emissions associated with direct seeded rice (DSR), irrigated wheat (IW) and rainfed wheat (RW). Study shows that except for Marine eutrophication (MEUT) and Agricultural land use (ALU), rice production has relatively higher impact than wheat production. Irrigated wheat production found with higher potential of causing non-cancerous diseases caused by air pollution, whereas rice production has the potential to contribute to cancer disease. The production of rice and wheat in Madhya Pradesh state cumulatively contributes 0.008 Gt CO2 eq. (0.10% of global total) to the global agrifood system GHG emission within farmgate. Since majority of the emissions are caused by soil & crop nutrients and fuel consumption, here it became important to adopt sustainable agricultural practices & biofuel to lessen the environmental impact of wheat & rice production and make sustainable agro-food system of Madhya Pradesh. Based on study results emission mitigation policies have been suggested taking the existing policies into consideration.


Received: July 28th, 2023 ; Accepted: January 12th, 2024 ; Published: February 16th, 2024 ; Correspondence:


carbon footprint, environmental impact, life cycle assessment, rice, wheat, articles