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Effectiveness of reducing ammonia emissions from solid manure by using bio-covers




Kättesaadav alates


Knoknerienė, I.
Strelkauskaitė-Buivydienė, I.
Bleizgys, R.

Ajakirja pealkiri

Ajakirja ISSN

Köite pealkiri


Estonian University of Life Sciences


According to the European Environment Agency, in 2021, 93 percent of ammonia was released into the environment due to agricultural activities. Almost half of the pollutants were released from cowsheds. The next significant source of pollution is liquid and/or solid manure storage facilities. Many dairy farms use liquid manure systems, but inevitably there is some solid manure produced in every cattle farm. Ammonia emissions increase when air penetrates the top layer of the manure pile. This is the reason why it is recommended to reduce the surface area of the manure piles that contact with open air. Straw, peat, sawdust, or other materials can be used as bio-covers. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of bio-covers while covering solid manure. Experimental studies were carried out in field conditions, covering solid cattle manure with a > 10 cm thick layer of chopped straw. As the results show, chopped straw reduced ammonia emissions by up to 44.49 percent, but the emission declination rate is 1.85 times higher during the period when NH3 volatilization is the most intensive.


Received: January 31st, 2024 ; Accepted: May 7th, 2024 ; Published: May 23rd, 2024 ; Correspondence:


air pollution, ammonia, bio-covers, cattle manure, emissions, articles