Stimulation and production of some active compounds in the Chia plant with melatonin in vitro
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A laboratory experiment was carried out in the tissue culture laboratories of the College of Agriculture \ University of Anbar \ Iraq from 1/2/ 2021 till 1/7/2021, to multiply and produce some active compounds in Chia in vitro. Nutrition medium (MS) (Murashige and Skoog) was used to propagate chia plants. The culture medium was enriched with benzyl adenine regulator at MS concentrations, 1, 2, and 3 mg L-1 with five replicates for each one, respectively, in order in the multiplication phase, to know its effect on some morphological characteristics of Chia plants such as branch length, nodes and leaflets number. Also, brassinolide was laid out of 0, 1 and 2 mg L-1 , while NAA added of 0, 1, 2 and 3 mg L-1 with five replicates for each one respectively, were added to the culture media at the rooting stage, in order to test its effectiveness in improving the formation of rootlets of Chia plants. In another experiment, the culture medium was enriched with different concentrations of the melatonin PGR 0, 1, 2, and 3 mg L-1 , with five replicates for each one, respectively, in order to study the effect of melatonin in the production of active compounds. The results showed that enrichment of the culture medium with benzyl adenine at a concentration of 1 mg L-1 increased the length, branches number and nodules number in plantlets (9.46 cm branch-1 , 5.45 branch plantlet-1 , and 9.57 nodes shoot-1 ). The combined effect of Brassinolide 1 mg L-1 and 3 mg L-1 NAA improved both number of rootlets and their length. of 10.5 rootlets plantlet-1 and 5.7 cm, respectively. Also, the addition of melatonin to the culture medium significantly diversifying active compounds in term of quantity and quality characteristics. The concentration of 1 mg L-1 of melatonin gave the highest number of active compounds (25 compounds), however the etheric compounds and fatty acid derivatives were the highest. The percentage of etheric compounds was 80.0% by adding 3 mg L-1 of melatonin, and the percentage of fatty acid derivatives reached 16.36% of the total area ratio by adding 1 mg L-1.