Influence of the structural and functional characteristics of the seeding material on the yield structure elements and resistance to leaf diseases of spring soft wheat
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The high-quality grain use when sowing is a necessary condition for obtaining a high yield. Along with the standard tests regulated by the ISTA (International Seed Testing Association), there are promising introscopic techniques for the seed material quality controlling - methods of microfocus radiography and gas discharge visualization (electrophotography). The effect of structural and functional characteristics of the seeding material on the wheat productivity and diseases resistance was studied out on the experimental field of the Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources. Ten accessions of soft wheat with the ‘parametric passport’ (including more than thirty optical parameters, including gas discharge images, morpho- and densitometric analysis of X-ray patterns) were used as an experimental seeding material. Unviable wheat seeds, in comparison with healthy ones, were characterized mainly by a smaller area, form coefficient, standard deviation of three-dimensional fractality by isoline, entropy by isoline, higher brightness and standard deviation of the isoline radius of the gas discharge images. Morpho- and densitometric indices of unviable seeds differed in reduced values of the circle factor, roundness, minimum and maximum average brightness, but in greater elongation and optical density of the X-ray patterns projection. The intensity of wheat affection by diseases has varied depending on the structural and functional characteristics of seeds. It was noted, that the brown rust development decreased with an increase in the entropy by isoline, the contour irregularity and the average radius of the isoline.