Enrichment of the winter triticale gene pool under intergeneric hybridization
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The purpose of the research was to expand the genetic diversity of winter triticale under intraspecific and remote hybridization and to obtain new valuable forms for their involvement in the breeding process of creating high-yielding crop varieties. For this purpose interspecific and remote hybridization of different species of wheat, rye, triticale, Elimus arenarius L. and evaluation of obtained hybrids were carried out from 2013 to 2020. According to the results of our research it is proved that the species Triticum spelta L. and Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz. had dominant genes of incompatibility with rye. Crossing Triticum compactum Host. and Triticum sphaerococcum Perciv. species with rye allowed obtaining a higher level of seed setting, but the grain obtained with the participation of Triticum sphaerococcum Perciv. species was not viable. Compatibility of triticale with spelt and Elimus arenarius L. was low. The level of seed formation in F1 hybrids under artificial pollination was higher than under spontaneous pollination. Seed germination obtained from pollination of F1 hybrids by fertile forms of triticale - was low. It was found that hybridization of three-species triticale with spelt had a positive effect on grain quality indicators in the offspring. Crossing triticale with Elimus arenarius L. led to ear elongation, but caused a significant reduction in all indicators of grain quality in the offspring. As a result of remote hybridization of three-species triticale and spelt wheat, winter triticale varieties Navarra and Strateh were created and included in the State register of plant varieties suitable for distribution in Ukraine since 2018.