Wheat cultivars exposed to high temperature at onset of anthesis for yield and yield traits analysis
Temperature fluxes at some critical growth stages adversely affect the crop yield. Heat stress (HS) of limited duration shows mild to marked effects on crop yield. The study focused on evaluating HS of limited durations on wheat crop effective from anthesis. Four wheat cultivars (Pirsabak-2005, Pakhtunkhwa-2015, Pakistan-2013, and DN-84) and three advanced lines (P-2, P-12, and P-18) were subjected to HS for 48, 72, and 96 h evaluating changes in the yield and yield contributing traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design during 2017–18 and 2018–19 at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. At the onset of anthesis, plants were exposed to HS in the plastic tunnel for limited durations. The temperature inside and outside tents was recorded periodically. The mean across the years showed a significant effect on yield traits by HS imposition at anthesis stage. The mean data across the two years showed a significant effect of HS on yield and yield contributing traits. In comparison with control, spike weight (g) reduced by 29, 40, and 49% under limited HS of 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. Grains per spike were decreased by 45, 61, and 69% and grain weight by 29, 36, and 45% from control to imposed HS of 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. Overall grain yield decreased by 44, 61, and 70% upon exposed to 48, 72, and 96 h of HS, respectively. The differences among the cultivars for yield and yield contributing traits were different under various HS conditions. The study concluded that HS effective from anthesis has an adverse effect on grain weight and number and hence the grain yield. Among the cultivars, Pakistan-2013 showed better resistance to HS of limited duration when exposed at the anthesis stage of the crop growth.