Fixed nitrogen in agriculture and its role in agrocenoses
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On typical low-humus black soils in short crop rotations with legumes (25–33%) and without them, it was found that depending on the set of crops in crop rotation and application of fertilizer rates, nitrogen yield per crop is from 355 kg ha-1 to 682 kg ha-1 . The recommended fertilization system provided nitrogen compensation for crop yields by only 31–76%. Hence, in the plant-fertilizer system nitrogen deficiency varies from 161 to 370 kg ha-1 . The greatest nitrogen deficiency in the soil is observed in crop rotation without the use of fertilizers with the following crop rotation: peas-winter wheat-grain maize-spring barley. The main source of nitrogen for plants is soil nitrogen. In crop rotations with legumes, biological nitrogen is supplied from the air, which in quantitative terms per rotation in crop rotations with peas is 109–288 kg ha-1 , with soybeans 264–312, and with alfalfa 486 kg ha-1 . Biological nitrogen in crop rotations with peas and soybeans is reimbursed from 25 to 62%, in crop rotation without legumes - 9% (non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation), and in crop rotation with alfalfa - 89% of the total nitrogen removal with the crop.