Enzymatic activity of podzolized chernozem contaminated by pollutants during its detoxification
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The soil is an indicator of the general technogenic situation. In terms of the scale of pollution, as well as the impact on biological objects, heavy metals occupy a special place among pollutants. One of the priority pollutants are Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu. In assessing the ecological state of the environment, the study of the soil cover plays an important role. The most informative integral characteristics of the biological activity of the soil is the activity of soil enzymes. In a lysimetric experiment with podzolized chernozem, we studied the change in the biological activity of soil in terms of dehydrogenase, catalase, urease, invertase and phosphatase enzymatic activity under the complex influence of heavy metals under conditions of the use of detoxification agents. The soil at the experimental site had the following characteristics: pHKCl 6.2; humus content - 3.2%, P2O5-229 mg kg-1 , K2O-250 mg kg-1 of soil. Organic and mineral fertilizers in various combinations were used as detoxifiers. According to the obtained data, the redox enzyme - dehydrogenase and hydrolytic enzymes urease and phosphatase are the most sensitive to soil pollution. The best decontamination effect is obtained when using a system of organo-mineral fertilizers, what contributes to an increase in the activity of soil urease by 3.38 times, invertase - by 2.47 times, phosphatase - by 1.48 times, dehydrogenase - by 1.46 times, catalase - by 1.60 times. Changes in the activity of these enzymes can be used to diagnose the effectiveness of the use of various fertilizer systems on soil contaminated by heavy metals.