Introduced assessment of agrestic legumes in the middle Urals
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Currently, in fodder production industry, there is an acute problem of finding legumes that are well adapted to the natural and climatic conditions of the Middle Urals, possessing great longevity, as well as high fodder values. In the Middle Urals, as well as in the Russian Federation, as a whole, legumes valuable for forage from wild vicia and peavine species are still not used in culture. Both of these genuses are of great practical interest for their introduction into culture. They significantly differ from legumes traditionally used in fodder production in a number of parameters: long longevity (7–10 years in natural phytocenoses), resistance to a complex of natural and climatic conditions (rather high winter hardiness), early regrowth in spring. The purpose of the experiment is to reveal the characteristics of the growth and development of perennial wild legumes under conditions of introduction. The tasks of the study included the determination of the height and average daily growth dynamics, the timing of the passage of phenological phases, and the productivity of aboveground biomass. Research methods. The study on the introduction of agrestic legumes was carried out in the ‘Uralets’ educational and experimental farm (2005–2012), located in the Beloyarsky district of the Sverdlovsk region on the educational and experimental field of the crop production and breeding department. The experimental design includes 3 options: 1 opt. - Vicia sylvatica L. (forest vicia - control); 2 opt. - Lathyrus pisiformis L. (pea-shaped peavine); 3 opt. - Lathyrus pratensis L. (meadow peavine). The use of grass stand is single-cut, mowing carried out in the phase of mass flowering of the plants studied. To identify the floristic composition dynamics, a complete geobotanical description of vegetation was carried out. The following botanical composition was distinguished: introduced (cenose-forming) species: Vicia sylvatica L., Lathyrus pisiformis L., Lathyrus pratensis L.; non-seeded species - this group includes all wild-growing species (grasses and forbs) that have invaded the vegetation cover. Results. During the study it was established that the earliest regrowth is characteristic of peashaped peavine, it significantly outpaced other types of legumes in its development. The different phyto-cenotic stability of the cenose-forming species in the grass stand was discovered, the highest observed in the meadow peavine. The productivity of aboveground biomass in meadow peavine (by year of study) was significantly higher than in other studied species; on average for 2006–2012 it amounted to 15.3 t ha-1 , which is 1.9 t ha-1 higher than forest vicia and 4.6 t ha-1 more than pea-shaped peavine. Scientific novelty. For the first time, in the conditions of the Middle Urals, the growth and development features of wild perennial species from the family Fabaceae: Vicia sylvatica L., Lathyrus pisiformis L., Lathyrus pratensis L., were studied.