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2. Magistritööd

Selle kollektsiooni püsiv URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10492/2498

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  • Kirje
    Veiste pidamistingimused, sõrahaiguste esinemus ja sõrahoolduspraktikad Eesti piimakarjades
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Vaino, Mart; Kalmus, Piret (juhendaja); Mõtus, Kerli (juhendaja)
    Veiste sõrahaiguste tõttu väheneb lehmade piimatoodang ning lehmad praagitakse karjast enneaegselt, mis tõttu on sõrahaigustel negatiivne majanduslik mõju farmi tootlikkusele. Lõputöö eesmärgiks oli selgitada sõrahaiguste esinemus suurtes Eesti veisekarjades ning kirjeldada lehmade ja mullikate pidamistingimusi ning karjades kasutatavaid sõrahoolduse praktikaid. Uuring viidi läbi 40s eesti vabapidamisega veisekarjas. Farmides viidi küsitlus sõrahoolduspraktikate ja lehmade pidamistingimuste kohta. Farmidest koguti andmed hooldusvärkimise jooksul pandud diagnoosidest ning farmides mõõdeti lehma asemed ning käiguteede libedus. Küsitluse tulemusena selgus, et regulaarset hooldusvärkmist tehti 95% uurimisalustes karjades kas kaks (77,5%) või kolm korda (17,5%). Peamiseks sõrahoolduse meetodiks oli nn. massvärkimine (kõikide lehmade värkimine olenemata laktatsioonijärgust). Käesolevast uuringust selgus, et 19461 värgitud lehmast tuvastati sõrahaigus 5277 (27,0%) loomal, millest suurema osa moodustasid mittenakkuslikud sõrahaigused. Peamiseks tuvastatud sõrahaiguseks oli tallahaavand (SU), mille osakaal kõikidest sõrahaiguste diagnoosidest oli 34,7%. Digitaaldermatiidi (DD) esinemissagedus oli 31,6%, sõravahekasvaja diagnoositi 20,7% ja valgejoone haigus (WL) 10,2% juhtudest. Peamiseks pidamissüsteemiks lehmadel oli asemetel vabapidamine ning mullikatel sügavallapanuga grupisulud. Aseme kattematerjalina oli kõige enam lehmadel kasutusel madrats. Allapanu kasutamine ei olnud levinud kinnislehmade ja mullikate gruppides. Sõrahaiguste õigeks määratlemiseks ja esinemuse täpsemaks hindamiseks on vajalik luua ühtne sõrahaiguste registreerimise süsteem, mis aitab kaasa sõrahaiguste ennetusele.
  • Kirje
    Embrüosiirdamine lambal
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Langa, Liza; Reilent, Andres (juhendaja); Viljaste-Seera, Anni (juhendaja)
    Lammaste aretuses on Eestis peamiselt kasutusel loomulik paaritus, autorile teadaolevalt pole embrüotootmist ning -siirdamist seni rakendatud. Embrüotootmine võimaldab geneetiliselt väärtuslikematelt uttedelt saada korraga rohkem järglasi. Võimalik on siirdada ka külmutatud embrüoid, mis tähendab, et geneetilist materjali saab transportida pikema maa taha. Seeläbi on võimalik karja geneetilist väärtust tõsta elusloomi transportimata. See vähendab loomadele transportimisega põhjustatavat stressi ning haiguste levikut. Uttede reproduktiivtrakti iseäralik anatoomia muudab abistava reproduktsiooni tehnoloogiate rakendamise keerukaks. See on võimalik põhjus, miks nende kasutamine seni Eestis levinud pole. Käesolev juhuanalüüs annab kirjanduse alusel ülevaate lammastel kasutatavatest abistava reproduktsiooni tehnoloogiatest ning kirjeldab ja analüüsib Eesti Maaülikooli Produktiivloomakliinikus läbi viidud embrüotootmise ja -siirdamise protseduuri. Protseduur viidi läbi loomaomaniku soovil, et hinnata meetodi kasutegureid ning rakendamise keerukust. Kirjeldatava protseduuri käigus kasutati superovulatsiooni protokolli. Autor usub, et käesolev töö pakub laiemat huvi kõigile, kes soovivad lugeda lammaste abistava reproduktsiooni tehnoloogiate kohta või neile, kes soovivad lammastel läbi viia embrüotootmise ja -siirdamise protseduuri.
  • Kirje
    Theobromine toxicosis in dogs: case series study
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Hällfors, Sanni Wilhelmiina; Peetsalu, Kristel (advisor); Orro, Toomas (advisor)
    Theobromine toxicosis due to chocolate ingestion is common in dogs. Many factors affect the outcome of such exposure, leading to difficulty in assessing and treating each individual patient efficiently. For example, the amount of theobromine ingested greatly depends upon the type of chocolate ingested, in addition to the total amount. Despite its prevalence, the treatment of theobromine toxicosis is not completely settled. More research is needed to better understand chocolate toxicosis and its treatment. The aim of this study was to describe fifteen clinical cases as precisely as possible, to gain such understanding. This is a case study utilizing a database of an animal hospital in Finland. Fifteen cases were randomly selected from the database, and relevant available data from the initial assessment and control visit was gathered and analyzed. In addition, treatment protocol of the patients was evaluated and compared to literature. The study found the treatment protocols to mostly match that described in the literature. The main difference between literature and the study was the significant variety of recommended time between initial and control visit and the onset of clinical signs reported by the owners. Overall, the study showed that the signs and symptoms of chocolate toxicosis indeed seemed to vary greatly, and that despite adherence to treatment protocols, some variation remains concerning recommended treatment, control visits and owner guidance. More research on this topic is therefore warranted.
  • Kirje
    Assessment of chronic pain in Scottish fold cats: a case series study
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Knuth, Erja; Orro, Toomas (advisor); Tienhaara, Mari (advisor)
    As the level of quality in veterinary healthcare is improving, the life expectancy of domestic animals is extending. This has led to a higher incidence of chronic conditions, many of them associated with pain and ultimately affecting the overall quality of life and welfare. Cats are known to hide their pain very efficiently and comprehending their subtle body language can be challenging and chronic pain can go unnoticed by the owners as well as veterinarians. Various tools for pain assessment have been developed for veterinary use. To be able to use these tools, veterinarians should understand the importance of the owner's input when assessing chronic pain in cats. This retrospective case series study illustrates the most prevalent sources of chronic pain, including degenerative joint disease, cancer-related pain, oral pain, and neuropathic pain. The study describes how to approach chronic pain assessment and management. Scottish folds are one breed, where chronic pain can be seen at a very young age. Medical records of Scottish fold cats between September 2022 and March 2024 were reviewed. This study presents six cases of Scottish fold cats diagnosed with Scottish fold osteochondrodysplasia (SFOCD), describing the most prevalent clinical signs, age of onset, veterinarians’ approach to treatment, and possibilities of using the feline quality of life questionnaire (FQoL) in these patients. Chronic pain assessment should be implemented in the clinical examination on each visit, even at a very young age. The youngest cats with signs of chronic pain were four months old. Owners' input in chronic pain assessment is critical and questionnaires, such as FQoL can be beneficial in pain assessment.
  • Kirje
    Colostrum feeding practices and association with calf passive immunity in large-scale Estonian dairy herds
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Kupias, Jenni Annamaria; Viidu, Dagni-Alice (advisor); Mõtus, Kerli (advisor)
    Calves need immunoglobulins to protect them against diseases before their own immune system matures and starts working adequately. As transport of immunoglobulins is not possible in utero, calves need to obtain them from colostrum. In this thesis, the association between different colostrum feeding practices and calf serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was analysed. The data was collected via questionnaire presented to farmers of 120 different herds having at least 100 cows. Three to 17 blood samples were collected from calves up to seven days old. Mixed-effects linear regression model was used to analyse association between individual IgG1 test results in calves and the colostrum feeding practices. Results showed some statistically significant findings between feeding practices and calf serum IgG levels. The later after birth the first dose of colostrum was fed, the lower were the calves’ IgG levels (p = 0.023). Positive effects on IgG levels were seen when colostrum feeding information was recorded (p = 0.014) or the quality of colostrum was tested before first feeding (p = 0.012). Equipment used for first colostrum feeding also had an effect on adequate passive transfer of immunity (p = 0.007). Use of oesophageal feeding tube improved immunoglobulin G levels when calf was not drinking by itself (p = 0.021). Lower IgG levels were present in calves´ sera if pooled colostrum was fed to the calves at first feeding (p = 0.040). Measuring the colostrum temperature before feeding had a tendency to improve calf IgG levels (p = 0.084). This study demonstrated that some of the implemented feeding practices had an effect on calf serum IgG levels. To ensure successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, these effects should be taken into consideration when choosing and employing colostrum feeding practices.
  • Kirje
    Detection of fever in dairy calves using surgically implanted temperature sensors
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Nurmi, Meri; Niine, Tarmo (advisor)
    In cattle, homeothermy is vital for optimal physiological function and health. Automatized solutions monitoring continuously body temperature may allow more precise on-time determination of health status than the traditional methods of monitoring with rectal thermometer and visual appraisal of clinical signs. The current study was conducted to investigate the accuracy of subcutaneous temperature sensors in fever detection. Temperature sensors were surgically implanted at three different sites (neck, prescapula, and elbow) on calves 2–14 days old (n=10). Data on subcutaneous and rectal temperatures were collected over 62 days at a dairy farm. For statistical analysis, mixed logistic regression models were constructed, with sensor location and calf as random effects, and odds ratios were calculated to quantify the association of subcutaneous temperature measurements, time of the day, ambient temperature, and animal age with the outcome. Fever was the outcome variable with three cut-off levels of rectal body temperature (≥39.0°C, ≥39.5°C, and ≥40.0°C). The mean of rectally measured body temperatures was 39.0°C (n=1068) and subcutaneous temperatures was 35.7°C (n=30,700). Increases in subcutaneous temperature sensor measurements were weakly associated with three cut-off values, ≥ 39.0°C (p=0.03), ≥ 39.5°C (p=0.02), and ≥40.0°C (p=0.18). There were significantly increased odds detecting temperatures ≥39.0°C (OR=3.3, p=≤0.001) and ≥39.5°C (OR=2.7, p=≤0.001) when measurements were performed between 14:00–22:00 in comparison to 02:00–04:00. Time of the day associated increases in the odds of detecting fever could reflect that circadian rhythmicity exist also during febrile stages. Further research of peripheral temperature and its association with core temperature and longterm data about peripheral temperature is required to define the full diagnostic potential of subcutaneous temperature measurements in fever detection in cattle.
  • Kirje
    Factors that mare owners use to select the stallion for their mare
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Hämäläinen, Jenni; Kask, Kalle (advisor); Orro, Toomas (advisor)
    Horses have been selectively bred over the centuries for different purposes which has caused changes in the morphology, physiology, behaviour and performance of many breeds. The breeding of work horses for agricultural and forestry purposes has decreased and breeding is more focused on producing horses for different sporting activities and hobbies. Selection of horses for breeding has been mainly made based on the pedigree, performance results and temperament of the horse. Although, depending on the use, different breeds have been bred forward looking out for specific traits like speed, size or colour. This has entailed the decreasing of genetic variation and increasing of genetic mutations. Breeders' choices have been modified by the breeds and have had far reaching consequences. In the case of the sport horse breeding money – driven business will guide the breeding choices, whereas small scale breeder could have more options to choose a stallion that respond to his/her personal preferences. In Finland, the horse breeding tradition is quite young, but in recent years breeding has been focused on a wider area, different disciplines and more specific targets. Besides the professional breeders usually focused on sport horses, in Finland there are many smaller breeders who do not have such a clear breeding plan, or they are making the foals for their own purposes only. The online questionnaire made for Finnish mare owners examined the most important factors they use in stallion selection but also the planned breeding site, technique and possible breeding applications they use in the decision making. All the breeding orientations valued the conformation and size, pedigree and the temper of the stallion to be the most important traits. Competition results, studbook scores and progeny also play an important role whereas genetic diversity and inbreeding had quite a small effect on breeding choices. Insemination on the stud farm with chilled semen was found to be the most popular option. In breeding decision making breeders used the information found in databases of the breeding associations and studbooks.
  • Kirje
    Dynamics of the sex and age structure of wild boar population during the African swine fever epidemic in Estonia
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Hietala, Annariikka Kaarina; Viltrop, Arvo (advisor)
    African swine fever, a disease affecting the Suidae family, imposes significant economic losses on the pig industry. The main aim of this study was to explore the dynamics of the sex and age structure of wild boar population during the ASF epidemic in Estonia. Data was sourced from the Estonian Agriculture and Food Board, and it included data from January 2015 to December 2023 from all 15 counties in Estonia. We found that females were more likely to be found dead, but males were more likely to be hunted and killed in road accidents. These results indicated that females would be more susceptible for ASF, and males have higher value in hunting and by behavioural differences are more susceptible for road accidents. In trend analyses we observed declining proportion of females in found dead and hunted categories, which allows female population to increase even more. Were also found that female wild boars and those <1 year of age are significantly more frequently infected with ASF compared to males or other age groups respectively.
  • Kirje
    Attitudes and personality of farm managers and association with calf on-farm mortality in large Estonian dairy herds
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Kuisla, Kia Kirsikka; Mõtus, Kerli (advisor); Viidu, Dagni-Alice (advisor)
    Farm managers’ (FMs’) personality and attitudes towards animals and their health can be a major factor determining calf health and welfare, yet there is limited understanding of their relation to calf on-farm mortality. This study aimed to characterize the satisfaction, attitudes, and opinions of FMs working in large Estonian dairy herds and analyse their associations with herd calf mortality. FMs of 114 dairy herds rearing a minimum of 100 cows in freestall barns were included. Information was gathered about FMs’ personal background, satisfaction, opinions and attitudes towards calf mortality and different job-related factors, using a pre-developed questionnaire also including Ten Item Personality Inventory scoring. For each herd, separate analyses were performed for two age groups, calves of 0–21 days of age (younger age group – YAG) and calves of 22–90 days of age (older age group – OAG). The mean herd-level calf mortality risk was 5.9% and 2.7% in the YAG and the OAG, respectively. FMs’ satisfaction with calf mortality varied and dissatisfaction was associated with higher calf mortality, reflecting FMs’ awareness of the actual situation. FMs were somewhat doubtful of their knowledge about the accurate measures needed to decrease calf mortality. FMs had overall positive attitude towards calves, presented as strong empathy and emphasis on the importance of low calf mortality. High empathy was associated with higher calf mortality, proposing that FMs might be more sensitized and concerned because of the calf health issues on their farms. The present study revealed that FMs’ satisfaction, attitudes, and opinions towards calves differ in high- and lowmortality herds, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions and support to herds with higher calf mortality to improve calf health and welfare in large Estonian dairy herds.
  • Kirje
    The effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on fecal short-chain fatty acids and consistency in dogs with tylosin-responsive enteropathy
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Öljymäki, Essi; Spillmann, Thomas (advisor); Huhtinen, Mirja (advisor); Peetsalu, Kristel (advisor)
    Tylosin-responsive enteropathy (TRE) poses a clinical challenge characterized by chronic gastrointestinal signs and dysbiosis in the gut microbiota. Antibiotics have led to concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance, adding complexity to managing this disease. The impact of antibiotics on microbial diversity, composition, and function can lead to significant alterations in bacterial metabolites, and increases in potentially pathogenic bacteria. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) aims to restore the microbiota and its functionality, potentially reducing the need for antibiotics in TRE treatment. This study investigates the efficacy of FMT in TRE management, focusing on its effects on fecal consistency score (FCS), fecal dry matter (DM), and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels. Fourteen TRE dogs participated in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, receiving either FMT (n=7) or placebo (n=6, with 1 exclusion) for 4 weeks, followed by a 4-week follow-up period. After 4 weeks of treatment, dogs in the FMT group showed significantly lower FCS and higher fecal DM compared to the placebo group, with a moderate negative correlation between FCS and fecal DM levels. However, no significant differences were observed in SCFA levels between the treatment groups. These findings suggest that FMT may be beneficial in improving diarrhea in TRE dogs by improving fecal consistency and DM, potentially reducing reliance on antibiotics. Further research is needed to investigate in larger number of affected dogs the effects of FMT on intestinal microbiota and its role in TRE treatment strategies.
  • Kirje
    Comparison of muscle enzyme values of Icelandic horses with other breeds
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Kaipainen, Jenni; Leisson, Kätlin (advisor); Orro, Toomas (advisor)
    Icelandic horses have been bred in isolation for over a millennium. Because of the isolation and the small genetic pool, there are some breed specific peculiarities, and some studies have shown that there are differences in the blood serum variables of Icelandic horses compared to other breeds. The aim of this study was to find out, if the muscle enzymes, creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) has different activity compared to those of ponies, Finnish horses, and other horse breeds. The study was made retrospectively, and muscle enzyme activity of 50 Icelandic horse was compared to those of 75 horses and ponies of different breeds. Horses with any clinical acute condition that is known to affect these values (such as colic or acute lameness), and horses under 1 year old were left out of this study. The results showed, that sex and age did not have effect on the muscle enzyme activity (p-values > 0.502). There was no statistically significant difference in CK and AST activity between Icelandic horses, ponies, Finnish horses, and other horse breeds (p-values 0.460 and 0.171).
  • Kirje
    Passive transfer of immunity and growth of lambs during the first moth of life
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Eerola, Ripsa Rosaliina; Loch, Marina (advisor)
    The passive transfer of immunity (PTI) is considered to affect the lamb survival and growth performance before and after weaning. The Brix refractometer has been increasingly studied in sheep to evaluate colostrum quality, which is associated with PTI, and to detect PTI status in lambs. This research aimed to identify the associations between lamb serum Brix%, colostrum Brix% and lamb growth during the first 24 days of age. This could provide additional knowledge on the practical utilization of Brix refractometer in sheep farming, especially on its usefulness in improving lamb growth. Secondary aims were to examine other possible factors associated with colostrum and serum Brix% as well as lamb growth. Colostrum samples (n = 40) were collected within 4 h after birth and the colostrum quality was assessed with Brix refractometer. Serum samples (n = 80) were collected from twin lambs between 40 and 50 h after birth and PTI was evaluated with Brix refractometer. Lambs were weighed within 4 h after birth and at 24 days of age to calculate the average daily weight gain (ADG). Information on the ewe behavior, temperature and humidity, and lamb morbidity were also collected. A regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between colostrum Brix% and serum Brix%, and ADG. A regression model was constructed where ADG was used as the outcome of interest. A positive association between ADG and serum Brix% was found, indicating the importance of passive transfer of immunity for the lamb performance. The analysis revealed a weak positive correlation between colostrum Brix% and serum Brix% warranting further research on the accuracy of Brix refractometer in sheep and on the connection between colostrum and serum IgG concentrations. Additionally, a positive association between the temperature and ADG was found, providing new insights on the factors influencing the lamb performance.
  • Kirje
    Anesthetic medications used in non-intubated anesthesia procedures of rabbits in the Small Animal Clinic of the Estonian University of Life Sciences during the years 2018-2022
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Halvari, Meri; Tõnise, Kristin (advisor)
    Ensuring safe anesthesia for rabbits is challenging and requires a thorough understanding of the available anesthetic medications and their effects on vital functions. This descriptive study aimed to provide an overview of the anesthetic medications administered to nonintubated rabbits and to describe variations in heart rate and respiratory rate across different anesthesia protocols during various procedures. Some of the most common injectable medications used in rabbit anesthesia are opioids, ketamine, alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists, and propofol. Using a retrospective design, this study reviewed anesthetic records from 104 rabbits anesthetized between 2018 and 2022 in the Small Animal Clinic of the Estonian University of Life Sciences. The collected data included the anesthetic medications used, the procedures performed, and the respiratory and heart rates recorded during the procedures. The findings suggest that distinct anesthetic medications may influence the respiratory and heart rates of rabbits in varying ways. Notably, the administration of buprenorphine could potentially impact respiratory and heart rates. Other unexplored factors likely contributed to fluctuations in the rabbits' respiratory and heart rates. Pain emerged as a potential contributing factor to heart rate changes. Further studies are needed to investigate additional physiological parameters and their responses to different anesthetic medications in rabbits. Also, extending research carried out on laboratory rabbits to include pet rabbits would prove advantageous.
  • Kirje
    Survey of ear problems in Lagotto Romagnolos in Finland
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Herrala, Heta Hippu Ilona; Orro, Toomas (advisor)
    This thesis provides a comprehensive overview of ear problems and Canine Otitis Externa (OE) disease within the Finnish Lagotto Romagnolo population. OE, characterized by inflammation of the external ear canal in dogs, is a prevalent condition affecting dogs of various ages, genders, sizes, and breeds. A notable breed predisposition is apparent in many dog breeds. This thesis aims to extensively examine OE, explicitly focusing on ear issues in Lagotto Romagnolos. A survey designed to identify predispositions in Lagotto Romagnolos was distributed to members of the Finnish Lagotto Romagnolo owner's Facebook group, "Lagottofoorumi." The collected data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word. In total, 119 Lagotto Romagnolo owners answered the survey. Eighty-one dogs had a history of ear problems. The most common signs owners noticed were itchiness, head shaking and bad smell. Only a minority of the owners recognised pain in their dogs. The most common micro-organisms found in the ear cytology were yeast. Many owners experience excessive hairs in their dog's ear canals, which they think provoke ear problems. Survey results indicated a possible breed predisposition to ear infections.
  • Kirje
    Assessment of Listeria monocytogenes growth potential and dynamics in raw readyto-eat rainbow trout marinated with juice pomaces
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Jortikka, Salli Josefiina; Roasto, Mati (advisor); Mäesaar, Mihkel (advisor)
    Ready-to-eat foods are potential sources of foodborne infections as they are usually consumed without any beforehand treatment that would eliminate or reduce the levels of microorganisms. Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogen found in chilled ready-to-eat foods due to its ability to grow at refrigerator temperatures. With food additives, the growth potential of microorganisms may be reduced. By using natural additives that have bactericidal or antibacterial properties, the growth and number of pathogenic microorganisms can be reduced and at the same time, the food business operators could answer to the growing demand to produce more naturally produced food items. The aim of the study was to assess the growth potential of L. monocytogenes in marinated raw ready-to-eat rainbow trout products in which the marinades contained apple, black currant, rhubarb, or tomato pomace water extracts. It was found that by using pomace extracts from apple, black currant, rhubarb, and tomato as marinade components for rainbow trout, it is possible to classify the marinated fish samples as “ready-to-eat food unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenes”, as defined by the Commission Regulation (EC) No 2005/2073. Black currant pomace was the most effective in decreasing the growth of L. monocytogenes in the marinated fish samples during the 15day durability period.
  • Kirje
    Snake bite in dogs: retrospective case series study of Vipera berus envenomation in Estonia
    (2024) Ripatti, Julia Kristiina; Orro, Toomas (advisor)
    The venomous snake species Vipera berus, also known as The Common European adder, is the only venomous snake living in Estonia. Snake bite incidents in dogs are reported annually from April to September. Dogs are commonly bitten as a consequence of their curious nature and inability to detect potential danger. The clinical presentation of a venomous snake bite includes local and systemic changes. The prognosis of snake bites can be influenced by various factors, including variations in venom composition, the quantity of venom injected and the health status of the patient. The aim of this thesis was to explore the circumstances of the viper bite and compare the clinical data obtained from the cases with existing literature. This thesis complies information from 17 cases of dogs bitten by V. berus in Estonia retrospectively collected from the years 2020 to 2023. Dogs selected in this thesis met the criteria of a strong suspicion of an adder bite and clinical signs commonly seen in envenomation. Each dog was submitted to the Small Animal Clinic of Estonian University of Life Science. Furthermore, all the snake bites reported happened between the months of April and October. Each dog was presented with local swelling and pain in the region of the bite. Additionally, ten dogs (59%) exhibited changed mental status. Other clinical signs reported included vomiting, bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia and bruising. The common laboratory findings included leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and changes in liver parameters. All dogs presented with the snake bite survived and were discharged after 9 to 43 hours. There were no severe complications or systemic signs reported. The observed clinical signs and recovery progress were similar to the previous studies about adder bites in dogs. Based on these findings the clinical prognosis of the V. berus bite appears promising.
  • Kirje
    Milk composition, quality, and occurrence of mastitis pathogens in bulk milk samples in Estonia
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Wegmüller, Nadine Isabelle; Kalmus, Piret (advisor)
    The quality and safety of raw milk are essential for the manufacture of dairy products. The aim of the study was to analyse the milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), and occurrence of mastitis pathogens in bulk milk samples collected from Estonia. Bulk milk samples from farms selling raw milk to the Estonian milk processing plants were included in the study. In total, 863 bulk milk samples were included into the study, collected during three sampling periods (November 2021 to December 2022). In the milk laboratory of Estonian Livestock Performance Recording Centre, milk fat (%), protein (%), urea (mg/l), SCC (×1,000/ml), and TBC (x1,000 ml) were analysed with accredited methods using the automatic analyser Combifoss 6000 FC (Hilleroed, Denmark). A commercial real-time PCR test kit ‘’Mastiit 16’’ (Patho Proof Mastitis PCR Assay, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Espoo, Finland) was used for detection of mastitis pathogens. The average SCC in bulk milk samples was 258 372 cells/ml in first, 234 000 cells/ml in second and 218 000 cells/ml in third sampling period. The TBC averaged 25 182, 27 971 and 27 211 cfu/m, respectively. The bulk milk SCC associated with herd size, where the SCC was significantly lower in large dairy herds (≥400 dairy cows) compared to small herds (<30 dairy cows). The most prevalent mastitis pathogen over the three-sampling period was coagulase negative staphylococci (more than 80%), followed by Str. dysgalactiae and Str. uberis. The SCC was statistically higher (p < 0.05) in bulk milk samples containing contagious mastitis pathogens. The study showed significantly higher odds to find Str. agalactiae in bulk milk samples originating from larger herds, compared to smaller herds. The occurrence of S. aureus and M. bovis in bulk milk samples, did not associate with herd size. The overall milk quality in collected bulk milk samples was good and production of high-quality raw milk is accomplished in Estonia.
  • Kirje
    Associations of acute phase proteins with bovine respiratory disease in calves
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Askola, Johanna; Orro, Toomas (advisor)
    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a global problem with long-lasting morbidity and increased mortality. It causes economic losses and compromises animal welfare throughout production chain. Clinical and subclinical BRD complicates growth and fertility, lowers productivity and overall quality of animals. BRD weakens immunity making bovine susceptible to infections. BRD is difficult to prevent, treat and diagnose as it is a combination of multiple challenges such as poor calf management and high pathogen load at farm. In BRD pathogens and tissue trauma provoke local cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines that promote systemic inflammatory response called acute phase response (APR) to stimulate hepatic production of acute phase proteins (APPs) such as fibrinogen (Fb), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA). Fb, Hp and SAA concentrations increase in inflammatory and infectious conditions making them promising biomarkers to use in detection of calves with clinical or subclinical BRD. 150 calves aged 2-86 days, from 15 Estonian dairy farms were selected for the study concerning possible associations of Fb, Hp and SAA concentrations in calves with respiratory symptoms. APPs were used as markers for APR. Blood samples were collected from ten calves on each farm, five calves suspected to have APR (APR+) and five calves non-suspected to have APR (APR-). APP concentrations were examined, and multivariable linear mixed-effects regression models were used to analyse the associations. Increased Fb concentrations were associated with rectal temperature >39.5°C, increased respiratory rate >50 breaths/min and coughing. Increased Hp concentrations were in calves with rectal temperature of 39°C and above. Increased SAA concentrations were associated with rectal temperature >39.5°C and respiratory rate of 40-50 breaths/min. Thus, clinical respiratory symptoms promoted APR. Together with clinical examination of calves APPs could be used to detect calves with underlying APR and identify those in need of medical treatment.
  • Kirje
    Acute phase response and milk yield in dairy cows during topical treatment of digital dermatitis
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Kössö, Laura Katariina; Orro, Toomas (advisor); Pirkkalainen, Hertta (advisor)
    Digital dermatitis (DD) is a worldwide spread contagious disease of cattle causing painful lesions on the interdigital skin of the animals’ feet. Aetiology of the disease is not fully known yet, but according to current knowledge DD is a polytreponemal disease. DD is treated with topical antibiotic or non-antibiotic substances. Decreased milk yield has been observed together with DD. Lameness related to DD is considered to be one factor resulting in the loss of production and impaired welfare. Acute phase response (APR) is organisms’ way to fight against trauma or pathogens via acute phase proteins (APPs). APPs are activated by cytokines, the protein hormones that have multiple crucial roles in maintaining homeostasis. There has been some evidence of systemic APR in relation with DD. The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the effects of topical DD treatment to the APR during a two-week study period. Also, the effect of DD to milk yield was evaluated. During the study period, fibrinogen was significantly elevated in cows with DD in comparison to the healthy control group. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid-A were not significantly elevated. Milk yield was observed for a 28-day period, but there wasn’t a significant difference between study and control groups. These results indicate that topical DD treatment causes local inflammation which activates APR via fibrinogen.
  • Kirje
    Rabies situation in Estonia 2006-2020
    (Eesti Maaülikool, 2024) Pyhälä, Outi; Onoper, Alar (advisor)
    Rabies virus is zoonotic virus from the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rabdoviridae from order Mononegavirale. It has spread worldwide, excluding some islands like Antarctica and Australia, and without treatment leads to death within days after the infection. Most common human infection occurs via infected pet animal bite. The deadly nature of the disease has been major reason to start the eradication of it. Now a days the most problematic areas are the developing countries without proper eradication measures and lack of sufficient health care. With proper prophylactic measures, mostly vaccinations, the disease is 100 % preventable. In Europe oral vaccination campaigns of wild animals have been the most successful way to prevent human and pet animal infections and have been key factor in eradication prosses. In Estonia oral vaccination campaigns started in large scale in 2005. After that the eradication of rabies from Estonia have been possible. With the oral vaccinations of wild animals, the infections of the pet animals have come to an end. The remarkably decrease in rabies cases among wild and pet animals happened after the year 2006. The last rabies case in Estonia has been documented in 2011 and the rabies free status was achieved in 2013.