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2019, Vol. 30, No. 2

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  • Kirje
    Factors influencing adoption of improved potato (Belete) variety: evidence from Ethiopian smallholder farmers
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Feleke, Abel; Regasa, Guta; Muche, Mequanent
    Improving the adoption of improved crop varieties is very important to increase income, reduce hunger, sustain food security, and to reduce poverty in sub-Saharan Africa like Ethiopia. Similarly, Belete potato variety is one of the improved varieties that have been utilized by Ethiopian farmers, but this variety was not conjointly adopted in all parts of the country. Thus, this research was intended to analyze factors influencing rural farmers' decision for the adoption of improved potato varieties in Southern Ethiopia. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from primary and secondary sources. To select the sample respondents, two-stage sampling techniques were employed and finally, 146 households' heads were selected. To get the data survey questionnai-res, interview schedules, Focused Group Discussions, observations and key informant interviews were employed. To analyze the data, both descriptive statistics and econometric model were employed. Accordingly, the econometric model indicated that family labour, access to fertilizer, access to credit service, frequency of extension contacts, participation in training and field day, and educational level were positively and significantly influenced the adoption of Belete potato adoption, however, the market distance was influenced negatively. Therefore, this result implies that researchers, policymakers, extension service providers and other concerned bodies should be given attention to increasing the adoption of improved Belete potato variety.
  • Kirje
    Determinants of training needs of youths in broiler chicken production in Osun State, Nigeria and implications for extension workers
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Olumide-Oyaniyi, Mary Oluwaseun; Ajayi, Adedayo Olufemi
    This study identified the factors influencing the training needs of youth in broiler chicken production and drew implications for extension workers in Osun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 221 youth farmers through a purposive sampling procedure and a snowball sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, regression and factor analytical techniques. Findings reveal that 43.4% of the respondents were between the ages of 26 and 30 years, 26.7% were between the ages of 31 and 35 years, 19.0% were above 36 years of age while 10.9% of the respondents were less than 25 years of age. Majority (60.2%) of the respondents were males while others 39.8% were females. In addition, 40.7% of the respondents had at least three years of broiler chicken production experience, 34.8% had four to six years of experience, 17.6% had seven to nine years of experience and the remaining 6.8% had more than 10 years of broiler chicken production experience. In addition, vast Majority 86.0% of the respondents raise below 200 birds at the time of this research, 8.1% raise between 201 and 300 birds, 5.0% raised above 401 birds while the remaining 0.9% of the respondents raised between 301 and 400 birds. Furthermore, majority (60.2%) of the respondents have not received any training in poultry farming in the past one year while 39.8% of respondents received training between two to five times in the past one year. In addition, respondents were highly in need of training in five standard practices involved in broiler chicken production, which are: growing management / daily routine management, poultry housing, marketing of birds, litter management and equipment. Two groups of factors; income factors (33.2%) and training related factors (21.0%) that were isolated contributed 54.2% to the training needs of youth in broiler chicken production in Osun State, Nigeria.
  • Kirje
    Review : vermicompost, its importance and benefit in agriculture
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Olle, Margit
    Vermicomposting is described as "bioxidation and stabili zation of organic material involving the joint action of earthworms and mesophilic micro-organisms". Under appropriate conditions, worms eat agricultural waste and reduce the volume by 40 to 60%. Vermicompost produced by the activity of earthworms is rich in macro and micro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones, enzymes such as proteases, amylases, lipase, cellulase and chitinase and immobilized microflora. The enzymes continue to disintegrate organic matter even after they have been ejected from the worms. Reduced use of water for irrigation, reduced pest attack, reduced termite attack, reduced weed growth; faster rate of seed germination and rapid seedlings growth and development; greater numbers of fruits per plant (in vegetable crops) and greater numbers of seeds per year (in cereal crops) are only some of the beneficial effects of the vermicompost usage in agricultural production. Earthworms and vermicompost can boost horticultural production without agrochemicals. In spite of the benefits associated with vermicompost, its use is not widespread yet. This review attempts as increasing awareness of this local soil amendment.
  • Kirje
    Agri-food comparative advantages in the European Union countries by value chains before and after enlargement towards the East
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Bojnec, Štefan; Fertő, Imre
    To identify the European Union (EU) member states strong exports sectors and food chains, the revealed comparative advantage indices from trade data were calculated using the total global trade as the benchmark of comparison. The empirical results show that the level and patterns in the development of the revealed comparative advantage indices for agri-food products for each of the EU countries in the global markets were mixed. The most successful EU member states in agri-food export competitiveness in global markets were the Netherlands, France, and Spain. Differences between the EU member states were also identified for the main agri-food product groups. Latvia, Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, and Luxembourg were the five EU countries that competed most successfully in global grain markets. In terms of fruit and vegetable produce exports Greece, Cyprus, Spain, Lithuania, and Bulgaria were the most competitive EU countries in world markets. With respect to global dairy markets Denmark, Luxembourg, Latvia, Ireland, and the Nether-lands achieved the largest export advantages, although strong export competitiveness was evident for almost all of the EU member states in the global dairy markets. Cyprus, Bulgaria, Ireland, Hungary, and Denmark revealed significant export advantages in global meat markets. New EU-member states, particularly Bulgaria and Latvia, achieved high export advantages in the global markets for the select product groups.
  • Kirje
    Influence of moisture depletion and surface drip irrigation style on some soil hydraulic properties and potato crop
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Aldulaimy, Saad Enad Harfoush; Salman, Adil Khairullah; Abood, Mohammed Ali; Hamdi, Ghassan Jaafar
    This study aimed to determinate the impact of soil moisture depletion and surface drip irrigation style on some soil hydraulic properties such as infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, application efficiency, and water use efficiency for potato crop. A field experiment was carried out in a site located north east Ramadi, Iraq. The study consists of two factors: the first factor was two levels of moisture depletion percentages 25 and 50%, while the second factor includes two surface drip irrigation styles, which were traditional surface drip irrigation and partial drying surface drip irrigation. Consumptive use for potato plant reached 32.05 cm during the growing season. Results showed a significant influence for the treatments on application and water use efficiencies as well as on infiltration and soil hydraulic conductivity. The combination of the treatments partial drying drip irrigation style and 25% moisture depletion percentage can be recommended to achieve the best irrigation management for potato plant, which improve soil hydraulic properties and meet the best plant response in same time.
  • Kirje
    Theoretical background for increasing grip properties of wheeled tractors based on their rational ballasting
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Bulgakov, Volodymyr; Nadykto, Volodymyr; Kyurchev, Serhiy; Nesvidomin, Viktor; Ivanovs, Semjons; Olt, Jüri; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Institute of Technology
    The correct selection of the level of mechanical ballasting for wheeled tractors is among the most important issues for increasing their utilisation efficiency, in particular, increasing their grip properties. The shortcoming of the earlier undertaken investigations was that they virtually did not take into account the allowed maximum pressure of the tractor’s wheels on the soil. At the same time, little attention was paid to the impact of the maximum load-carrying capacity of the wheel tyres. The aim of the paper is to eliminate these deficiencies. Because of the authors’ efforts, the new technique has been developed, which differs in that it employs the requirement of the tyre’s ecofilic properties. The implementation of this requirement implies setting the maximum allowed level of the tractor wheels’ pressure on the soil and taking into account the maximum load-carrying capacity of the wheel tyres as well as the vertically applied load on each of the tractor’s axes under the simultaneous action of both the horizontal and vertical components of the tractive resistance of the employed agricultural implement. The practical effectiveness of the new approach is shown by the example of determining the possibility and level of ballasting the specific wheeled tractor operating as part of a ploughing unit.
  • Kirje
    Short communication: the effect of silicon on the organically grown leaf lettuce growth and quality
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Olle, Margit
    The purpose was to assess the effect of silicon on the leaf lettuce production. The experiments in the greenhouse were carried out in the spring 2014 at the Estonian Crop Research Institute. Treatments: 1) stabilized silicic acid treatment; 2) control. Si treatment (2 mL L–1 of silicic acid): First spray, when 1 true leaf was present; second spray was two weeks after spray 1; third spray was two weeks after spray 2. The pH of spray solution was 5.5. pH of spray solution was 5.5. Control plants were treated with water. The plants were 26% higher in Si variant. The width of leaf lettuce was 32% larger in Si variant. In leaf lettuce the phosphorus content was 14% higher, the content of calcium was 32% higher, the content of magnesium was 12% higher in Si variant than in control.