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2020, Vol. 18, No. 1

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Nüüd näidatakse 1 - 20 24
  • Kirje
    Float system and crucial points of the method for seedling production and crop cultivation with or without organic fertilization
    (2020) Kanatas, P.
    Float system is a less-intensive and low-cost technology that enables efficient control of the nutrition of the growing plants. The findings of experiments carried out under float system in various crops with or without organic fertilization need to be reviewed. The importance of float system for growing plants without inorganic fertilization and chemical pesticide use needs also to be pointed out. Float system can enhance root development of growing plants and control the height of produced transplants. This can result in increased yields and improved transplant quality, not only in tobacco transplant production systems but also in the case of vegetable crops such as tomato or lettuce. In the case of crops like tobacco and for the success of float system alkalinity and oxygen content of the water in the nutrient solution and selection of the growing media are crucial. Regarding vegetable crops, the combination of float system and organic fertilization can enhance root development in tomato as compared to the combination and lettuce resulting in high-quality products. Several aromatic and medicinal plants, including basil and spearmint, provide high yields and good product quality in floating systems especially along with organic fertilization. Conclusively, float system is a major method for producing high quality products or transplants. Further investigation is needed regarding the combined effects of organic fertilization and float system on more crops and under different climatic conditions.
  • Kirje
    Theory of oscillations performed by tools in spiral potato separator
    (2020) Bulgakov, V.; Holovach, I.; Ruzhylo, Z.; Fedosiy, I.; Ihnatiev, Ye.; Olt, Jüri; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Institute of Technology
    The aim of this study is to provide for the intensification of the process of removing impurities from the potato heap by oscillating devices, which takes place, when potato tubers are cleaned in the spiral separator during their lifting. The authors have devised a new design of the spiral separator, which can be used in the process of lifting potatoes from the soil. It comprises cantilever cleaning spiral springs, which in their simultaneously rotary and oscillatory motion clean and transport the potato tubers with good quality. However, the removal of impurities from the cleaning area and the cleaning of the side surfaces of potato tuber bodies from the stuck soil can be significantly more effective, if the spiral springs perform their oscillatory motions in the longitudinal and vertical plane during their operation more intensively. In order to achieve that, the authors have worked out a new theory of the oscillatory motion of the cleaning spiral working under the action of the potato heap. That promotes the intensification of the process of cleaning potato bodies from the stuck soil. The authors have generated a new partial differential equation, which describes the oscillations of the cantilever cleaning spiral. The PC-assisted numerical solving of the said differential equation and further numerical modelling have made it possible to obtain the analytic expressions of the relations between the change in the helix pitch distance of the cleaning spiral and its deformation, in particular, the simultaneous longitudinal extension and transverse bending. That result, in its turn, provided for finding the maximum limit amount of the above-mentioned deformation under the condition that the potato tubers may not fall through the spaces between the spiral turns, taking into account the design and kinematic parameters of the cleaning spiral itself, the material it is made of and the process-dependent mode of operation of the separator. As a result of the PC-assisted numerical modelling, it has been found that the total deflection of the spiral on its length varies within the range of 0 to 0.05 m under the following parameters: angular velocity of rotation of the spiral ω = 30 rad s-1, density of the material of the spiral ρ = 7,700 kg m-3, elastic modulus Е = 2∙1011 Pa, cleaning spiral bar stock radius r = 8.5 mm and a uniform load intensity of 1000 N m-1. Such variation ensures the good quality of cleaning and transportation of potato tubers. According to the results of the PC-assisted numerical calculations, the helix pitch distance of a cleaning spiral with the above parameters and the original helix pitch distance S = 48 mm, due to the spiral’s deformation under the proposed transverse oscillations, can change up to 54 mm, which makes impossible for potato tubers to fall out of the cleaning unit. Experimental studies fully support the results from the theoretical calculations to determine the displacement of the ends of the cleaning unit’s spiral springs.
  • Kirje
    Theory of grain mixture particle motion during aspiration separation
    (2020) Bulgakov, V.; Nikolaenko, S.; Holovach, I.; Adamchuk, V.; Kiurchev, S.; Ivanovs, S.; Olt, Jüri; Estonian University of Life Sciences
    The practice of separating grain mixtures with the use of the difference in the aerodynamic properties of their components has proved that the process of separating mixtures in the aspiration separator is the most promising one with regard to the improvement of quality and intensification of production. The authors have developed a new improved design of aspiration seed separators, in which the work process of separating seed material is performed with the use of vibration processes. In this seed material separator, the constant force air flow that acts on the sail members on the central pipe of the separator, when seeds are fed for processing, generates self-excited oscillations in the pipe, which produces centrifugal forces of inertia in the seed feeding system. As a result of the mentioned effect, the propelling force in the process under study substantially increases, accelerating the seeds of different fractions, which differ in their masses, to different velocities. The motion paths of the seed particles change accordingly, heavier particles moving closer to the vertical axis of the aspiration channel, which provides for increasing the efficiency of separation of the seeds of different fractions from each other. In this paper, a new mathematical model is developed for the motion of a seed mixture material particle in the operating space of the separator’s aspiration channel. The mathematical modelling of the process of vibration and aspiration separation has indicated that the separation of the motion paths of the medium and heavy fractions takes place within the range of 20–40 mm; the flying speed of the particles is equal to 3.2–8.0 m s–1, respectively; and their acceleration is equal to 1.8– 3.3 m s–2, which provides the necessary conditions for the accurate and high quality separation into the required fractions. In view of the found differences between the kinematic characteristics of the separated fractions of the grain mixture, the diameter of the pipeline for the medium fraction is to be within the range of 90–100 mm, for the heavy fraction – 50–70 mm.
  • Kirje
    What happens to peat during bog fires? Thermal transformation processes of peat organic matter
    (2020) Ozols, V.; Silamikele, I.; Kalnina, L.; Porshnov, D.; Arbidans, L.; Krumins, J.; Klavins, M.
    Bog fires are a serious natural phenomena. Major increase in the number of fires has happened during the last decades due to bog transformation into agricultural lands, accidents and human activities. During bog fires the peat is exposed to high temperatures due to which chemical transformation and even mineralisation of peat can occur. The aim of the study was to analyse the impacts of the bog fires on the bog as an ecosystem, advance the understanding and knowledge of fire impact on peat and humic matter properties and application possibilities. As the material for the study peat samples from burnt sites and thermally treated peat were used. To reveal peat transformation during bog fires, thermogravimetric analysis of peat samples were done, where amounts of bitumens, humic acids and mineral matter were estimated. During bog fires thermal modification of peat properties takes place, resulting in full mineralisation of peat and release of mineral substances. Bog fires lead to development of peat char, bitumens and significant changes in structure and properties of peat humic acids. However, from perspective of application of peat as a substrate and from perspective of impacts on the bog ecosystems, the effects are negligible.
  • Kirje
    Sorbitol and lithovit-guano25 mitigates the adverse effects of salinity on eggplant grown in pot experiment
    (2020) Issa, D.B.; Alturki, S.M.; Sajyan, T.K.; Sassine, Y.N.
    This trial aimed to study the separate effects of nano-fertilizers and sugar alcohols in mitigating salt-stress on eggplant (Solanum melongena L) crop. For this purpose, two different concentrations of lithovit®-guano25 (A1:0.5 g L -1 and A2:1 g L -1 ) and sorbitol (B1:5 g L -1 and B2:10 g L -1 ) were sprayed on eggplant irrigated by three NaCl solutions (EC1:1.5 dS m-1 , EC2:3 dS m-1 and EC3 6 dS m-1 ). Control plants were salt-stressed without any product. Results revealed an inhibitory effect of increasing in salt-stress on vegetative traits (plant height, leaf number, weights of plant parts and root mass fraction), reproductive traits (fruit number, fruit weight, yield plant-1 , fruit diameter) and photosynthetic pigments. Control plants at EC6 had the highest cell electrolyte leakage (51.26%). Plant height and fruit number were maximized by A1 at all salinity levels. Additionally, A2 increased fruit weight by 89.98g, 85g and 92.3g compared to control respectively at 1.5, 3 and 6 dS m-1 . Yield plant-1 increased by this treatment at all EC levels. At 3 and 6 dS m-1 , A2-treated plants had the highest chlorophyll a (respectively 1.67 and 1.4mg g-1 fresh weight), total chlorophyll (respectively 2.38 and 1.9mg g-1 fresh weight) and carotenoids (respectively 193 and 172µg g-1 fresh weight) contents. A2-treated plants had the lowest cell electrolyte leakage at 1.5 dS m-1 (14.27%), 3 dS m-1 (25.31%) and 6 dS m-1 (37.78%). Treating plants with B1 and B2 maximized respectively fruit diameter at 1.5 dS m -1 and water content in all plant parts at 3 dS m-1 . Both products helped plants reducing the adverse effects caused by salinity.
  • Kirje
    Aphid complex associated with potato in agro-climatic conditions of Kosovo
    (2020) Musa, F.; Krasniqi, D.; Musa, S.
    Field surveys for aphids infesting potato crops in three most important localities for potato production in Kosovo (Podujevë, Prishtinë and Vushtrri) were conducted in vegetation seasons of 2018–2019. With the purpose to monitor and confirm the aphid composition in potatoes, aphid leaf count was used as a method which is applied worldwide. Sampling for aphids from the leaves of potato plants was undertaken during cropping season, every 10 days, where 100 leaves were taken at random and checked in triplicates, from each field. During of this experimental work, the following aphid species were registered Myzus persicae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Aphis nasturtii and Aulacorthum solani. From the total number of aphids recorded (4,210 individuals), the following percentage belongs to the different aphids: M. persicae (57.24%), A. nasturtii (25.72%), A. solani (7.77%), M. euphorbiae (5.68%), and other none identified aphids (3.59%). Relying on the results of this research we have confirmed to exist statistical significant differences with regard to the number of aphid’s species according to the localities and aphids that infests the potatoes. With the goal to manage and control aphids spread infields with potatoes, it is extremely useful to evaluate and to see the possibility for an Integrated Management against these pests at farmer level.
  • Kirje
    Morphological variability of Botrytis cinerea – causal agent of Japanese quince grey mould
    (2020) Jakobija, I.; Bankina, B.; Klūga, A.
    Botrytis cinerea is a causal agent of grey mould that damages many species of plants including Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica (Thumb.) Lindley ex Spach). Grey mould has been found on Chaenomeles spp. flowers, fruits in all stages as well as on twigs. Morphological variability within Botrytis species has been previously reported in the literature, but no information is available about B. cinerea isolated from Chaenomeles spp. The aim of this study was to describe the symptoms of grey mould and clarify the morphological variability of B. cinerea isolates obtained from samples collected in commercial plantations of Japanese quince. Samples of plant parts with different fungal disease symptoms were collected in eight commercial plantations of Japanese quince during vegetation seasons of 2017 and 2018. Some samples were taken in Japanese quince plantations in Lithuania and Estonia. A total of 286 isolates of fungi were isolated from damaged shoots, leaves and fruits of Japanese quince plants, using potato dextrose agar. Botrytis cinerea isolates (39) were separated depending on the morphological characteristics and were proved by using methods of molecular biology. B. cinerea was isolated from shoots, leaves and fruits. The isolates of B. cinerea were described and classified into distinct morphological types depending on the characteristics of mycelia, sclerotia, reverse side of media and the presence or absence of sporulation.
  • Kirje
    Analysis of the selective value of promising Melissa officinalis L. subsp. altissima (Smith.) Arcang variety
    (2020) Nevkrytаya, N.V.; Pashtetsky, V.S.; Novikov, I.A.; Petrishina, N.N.; Mishnev, A.V.; Repetskaya, A.I.
    The aim of this research was to study a promising MD 1–17 Melissa officinalis L. subsp. altissima (Smith.) Arcang. variety sample obtained in the collection of the gene pool of the Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea (RIAC) in comparison with Krymchanka (selected in the RIAC) and Lada (selected in the All-Russian research Institute of medicinal and aromatic plants(VILAR) varieties of lemon balm M. officinalis L. subsp. officinalis. In 2017– 2019, in the Department of Essential Oil and Medicinal Plants of the RIAC,a competitive variety trial of lemon balm varieties was conducted in accordance with the methodological recommendations for the selection of essential-oil plants. A territory where this study was conducted belongs to one of the five agroclimatic regions – the upper piedmont, warm, not enough humid; to the northern subarea with moderately mild winters. Weather conditions during the years of competitive variety trial varied significantlya fact that allowed assessing the adaptability of studied variety samples and forecasting the nature of productivity potential realization in different growing conditions. As a result, it was found that MD 1–17 variety sample significantly exceeds other varieties in terms of yield of fresh raw materials, on average, by 62.2 and 77.4%, and in yield of air-dried raw materials, on average, by 32.2 and 52.2%, respectively. In terms of obtaining essential oil from air-dried raw materials, this variety sample exceeds the best in this parameter Crimean variety Krymchanka by 56.3%. Basic components of its essential oil are caryophyllene (25.3–35.9%) and germacrene D (17.7–31.2%) with almost complete absence or insignificant amount of citral (0.1–7.3%); the proportion of latter in essential oils of Krymchanka and Lada varieties can reach 36.6% or more. Novelty of this study includes the creation of the first variety of a new promising essential oil plant –M. altissima. Raw materials of this variety and products of its processing may be of interest for different ways of use, including the perfumery and cosmetics industry, for food purposes as a component of tea compositions, etc.
  • Kirje
    Hairy fleabane (Conyza bonarienis) response to saflufenacil in association with different formulations of glyphosate subjected to simulated rainfall
    (2020) Dalazen, G.; Pisoni, A.; Menegaz, C.; Merotto Jr., A.
    Saflufenacil has been used to control glyphosate resistant weeds, including hairy fleabane. There are several glyphosate formulations, which are related to different salts and adjuvants. Differences between these formulations may result in variations in efficacy, especially in the face of unfavorable environmental conditions, such as the occurrence of unexpected rainfall after application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the control of hairy fleabane with saflufenacil in tank mix with different formulations of glyphosate subjected to simulated rainfall after application. The treatments evaluated were salts of glyphosate (isopropylamine, potassium and ammonium salt), different periods of simulated rainfall after herbicide application (30, 120 and 240 min, and no rainfall), and the presence or absence of saflufenacil and a non-ionic adjuvant. Absorption of saflufenacil by hairy fleabane is rapid, since simulated rainfall after 30 min after application did not result in loss of efficiency when the herbicide is applied with adjuvant. The association of isopropylamine and ammonium salts of glyphosate with saflufenacil increases the control of hairy fleabane and prevents the occurrence of regrowth when rainfall occurs at 30 min after the application. The occurrence of simulated rainfall after 240 min reduces the glyphosate efficiency by 30%, 15% and 60% for the isopropylamine, potassium and ammonium salt formulations, respectively. The addition of adjuvant improves the efficiency of glyphosate salt of potassium by 40%. The response of the mixture of glyphosate and saflufenacil is variable, mainly in situations of rainfall after application.
  • Kirje
    Production of Aspergillus oryzae RCAM 01133 biomass with increased protein and polysaccharides content using by-products of food industry
    (2020) Serba, E.; Pimenov, N.; Mochalina, P.; Overchenko, M.; Borscheva, Yu.; Sharikov, A.; Rimareva, L.
    The biomass of filamentous fungi is a promising source of protein and carbohydrate. It can be used as an unconventional substrate in technologies for obtaining food and feed ingredients. The studies show that the fungus Aspergillus oryzae synthesizes an insufficient level of protein in the process of solid-state fermentation. The aim of the research was to develop conditions for the production of fungal biomass with a high content of protein and polysaccharides on the basis of solid-state fermentation using by-products of food industry as inexpensive substrate for biomass production. Wheat bran, soybean meal, distilled dry grains with solubles, and brewer’s spent grain were used as raw material. Results of fermentation show that the protein content was 73.4% and 82.0%, which is more than 3 times higher than in fungus grown by submerged fermentation. The studies of the biosynthesis properties of the selected strain A. oryzae RCAM 01133 confirmed the high biological value of microbial biomass cultivated using food by-products. Fermentation of micromycete on culture media containing soybean meal and DDGS provided an increase of protein content by 1.45 times. Maximum increase of amino acids was observed for isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, and glutamic acid. The increased content of synthesized polysaccharides related to media containing wheat bran and DDGS. The highest concentrations of polysaccharides were 27.9% and 32.9%, respectively.
  • Kirje
    Prebiotic properties of licorice root extracts
    (2020) Tsirulnichenko, L.; Kretova, J.
    The study objective is to investigate effect of licorice root extract on growth of probiotic microorganisms. As fructan percentage in licorice roots is 27.8–28.8%, this value is sufficient to enable the raw material suitability as a prebiotic ingredient. The licorice root extract (0.1%, 1% and 10% of medium volume) was added to media. The same media without added extract were considered as controls. Effect of the licorice root extract on growth of probiotic microorganisms was studied in 2 commercial probiotic drug Bifiform (Denmark) and Bifidobacterin forte (Russia). Licorice root extract provides probiotic bacteria an opportunity to tolerate acidity/alkalinity gradient of model media well and to decrease their count slower. In vitro studies showed, what 1% extract provides more favorable conditions for microorganisms that 10% one.
  • Kirje
    Biomass yield of silage maize, fertilizers efficiency, and soil properties under different soil-climate conditions and fertilizer treatments
    (2020) Hlisnikovský, L.; Barlog, P.; Kunzová, E.; Vach, M.; Menšík, L.
    We evaluated the efficiency (the netto agronomic efficiency – NAE, the physiological efficiency – PE, and the apparent recovery efficiency – ARE) of farmyard manure (FYM) applied alone, and together with mineral N (FYM+N), and NPK (FYM+NPK), on the biomass production of silage maize at three localities (Caslav, Ivanovice, Lukavec) in the Czech Republic, characterised by different soil-climate conditions. The effect of fertilizer treatment on soil chemical properties was also analyzed. After four years of evaluation, the application of FYM resulted in comparable biomass production as in the FYM+N, and FYM+NPK treatments, showing the good ability of the mineralized FYM to provide enough nutrients during the growing season. Increasing doses of applied nutrients were connected with higher biomass production. However, no significant differences were recorded between fertilizer treatments. The efficiency of applied nutrients was higher on soils of worst quality (sandy loamy Cambisol – Lukavec), while lower on naturally fertile loamy degraded Chernozem (Ivanovice). But again, no significant differences between the selected parameters were recorded. Although the application of mineral fertilizers has not increased maize biomass yield significantly, they positively affected soil chemical properties, mainly the soil concentration of P, K, Mg, and soil organic carbon content. This shows the beneficial effect of the application of mineral fertilizers, especially in the Czech Republic, where the application of mineral P and K decreased drastically during the last thirty years.
  • Kirje
    Agroecological prospects of using corn hybrids for biogas production
    (2020) Mazur, V.A.; Pantsyreva, H.V.; Mazur, K.V.; Myalkovsky, R.O.; Alekseev, O.O.
    Ukraine is an agricultural country with great agricultural potential for biogas production, which is the key to fertile soils and favorable climatic conditions for energy crops, including corn. The article analyzes the experience of using biogas in Ukraine and the world, its mechanism of production. The leader in biogas production in the world is the European Union in general and Germany in particular. The total number of biogas plants in Europe exceeds 11 thousand, of which 7.2 thousand in Germany. Іnstalled biogas, which is released in the process of complex fermentation of organic waste, consists of a mixture of gases: methane – 55–75%, carbon dioxide – 23–33%, hydrogen sulfide – 7%. An important sector of renewable energy sources in biogas production is presented and the prospects for its use are determined. The energy dependence of our country on the volumes of imported natural gas is analyzed. The main aspects of biogas production are explored using renewable energy sources that are inexhaustible in our crane and the phased operation of the biogas plant is investigated. The real advantages of the need for biogas production and use in our country are outlined. Problems aimed at the development of alternative energy have been proved in order to detect environmental pollution. It has been established that in Ukraine the use of corn silage to improve the efficiency of biogas production at existing biogas stations has not been used so far. The problems of increasing the yield of corn plants have been proved not only by breeding and genetic methods, but also by cultivation technology.
  • Kirje
    Influence of row spacing on canopy and seed production in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.)
    (2020) Casini, P.; Biancofiore, G.
    A new crop recently introduced in Italy is amaranth. Studies involving agronomic techniques on this plant are limited. The aim of the present research was to assess the effect of distance between rows on both seed yield and ground cover in Amaranthus cruentus L. Sowing treatments included two single row spacing designs (18 and 60 cm) and one double row spacing design (18 + 60 cm). At the six true leaf stage, in the single row design of 60 and 18 cm row spacing, ground cover was 16% and 47% respectively. An intermediate coverage of 31% was evident in the double rows. At the ten true leaf stage, plants cultivated in single rows at 18 cm covered the ground early, thereby attaining a ground cover of 85%. Regarding yield, a seed production of 0.92 t ha-1 was obtained from plants in the double row design compared to the respective single row spacing designs of 18 and 60 cm, where yields were 0.85 and 0.70 t ha-1 respectively. The selection of one mode of sowing over another will largely depend on the type of equipment available to the farm. Whilst single row spacing distances of 18 cm displayed a net of advantage against weeds, difficulties were encountered in the case of managing weeds by mechanical equipment. The use of double rows permitted taking advantage of a slightly better ground cover than single rows, together with the possibility of mechanical intervention for the control of weeds, and importantly also provided a higher yield.
  • Kirje
    Combined application of microbial preparation, mineral fertilizer and bioadhesive in production of leek
    (2020) Karpenko, V.; Slobodyanyk, G.; Ulianych, O.; Schetyna, S.; Mostoviak, І.; Voitsekhovskyi, V.
    The research deals with additional fertilizing of leek cultivars Goliath and Tango with bacterial preparation Organic-balance and mineral fertilizer DripFert N20P20K20 + Ме in combination with adhesive agent of a natural origin Liposam. Field research was performed on the experimental plots of the Department of Vegetable Growing of Uman National University of Horticulture. The research focused on microbiological processes and formation of productivity in the leek crops depending on the combination of preparations. It has been established that the number of bacteria Azotobacter in the rhizosphere of leek increased 2.8 times after a four-time fertilizing with bacterial preparation Organic-balance and bioadhesive Liposam during vegetation. The maximum number of bacteria, including Azotobacter, in the rhizosphere of leek, was recorded after a four-time fertilization with DripFert N20P20K20 + Ме in combination with Organic-balance and Liposam. The share of influence of additional fertilization on the microbiota of the rhizosphere made up 77–97%. Leek cultivar Tango produced a larger assimilative leaf surface. Depending on the fertilizing the maximum leaf surface and photosynthetic potential of leek cultivars Tango and Goliath were recorded under combination of Organic-balance + DripFert N20P20K20 + Ме + Liposam. The yielding capacity of variety Goliath was better than that one of the variety Tango regardless of fertilizing. To make the growing technology of leek more environmental friendly it is advisable to introduce in the growing technology bacterial preparation Organic-balance together with Liposam. Utilization of these preparations improves crop yield, which makes up 0.6–0.7 t ha-1 for variety Goliath and 1.1–2.7 t ha-1 for variety Tango correspondingly. The investigated leek varieties had the maximum yields under combined application of Organic-balance + Liposam with fertilizer DripFert N20P20K20 + Ме, which is by 18–24% higher than provided by plants grown without fertilization.
  • Kirje
    Physiological indicators and yield of the Chinese cabbage cultivated at different soil water tensions
    (2020) Paulus, D.; Zorzzi, I.C.; Becker, D.; Nava, G.A.; De Paula, A.L.; De Paula, F.M.
    The development and yield of Chinese cabbage is influenced by soil moisture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological indicators, development, and yield of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Rupr.) grown at different soil water tension ranges. Two experiments were conducted (2016–2017) in the Olericulture Sector of the Federal University of Technology of Paraná. Two cultivars of the Chinese cabbage, Eikoo and Kinjitsu, and four soil water tension ranges 13–17, 23–27, 33–37, and 43–47 kPa were studied. Eikoo presented higher relative chlorophyll index, photosynthesis, and fresh leaf mass than did Kinjitsu. Physiological indicators transpiration (5.8 mmol H2O m-2 s -1 ), photosynthesis (14.5 µmol CO2 m-2 s -1 ), stomatal conductance (0.31 mol H2O m-2 s -1 ), and WUE (39.4 kg m-3 ) were higher at 13–17 kPa soil water tension. Soil water tension ranges with high water restrictions reduced the fresh leaf mass of both cultivars. Fresh leaf mass decreased by 236.2 and 191.7 g plant-1 in the highest soil water tension range in 2016 and 2017, respectively, when compared with the fresh leaf mass at the 13–17 kPa tension range. The lowest water consumption was observed at the 13–17 kPa tension range. The year 2017 resulted in higher internal CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, fresh leaf mass, number of irrigations and water consumption compared to the year 2016. Thus, the irrigation regime for the most optimal Chinese cabbage cultivation should maintain the soil water tension range at 13–17 kPa.
  • Kirje
    Game species fodder conditions in Eastern Siberia and Amur region
    (2020) Senchik, A.; Guretskaya, Yu.; Bormotov, M.; Pavlov, A.; Ryabchenko, A.; Glushkov, V.; Sato, Y.; Igota, H.
    Hunting farms can serve as a source of primary data on the state of natural resources. Taking into account the increasing anthropogenic impact on the environment, it is necessary to constantly monitor the situation with food for ungulates and predators in order to be able to take timely measures to improve the quality of habitat for wild fauna. Populations of wild large animals live in the host landscapes of so reduced that animals population become extremely vulnerable and unstable, signs of crisis can be seen in the data on the number of animals. Lack of natural food is a serious deterrent, especially in difficult times of the year, such as winter and spring. An analysis of the situation with food for a particular species will allow hunting farms to properly plan their feeding and other activities throughout the year in order to maintain a population of certain species on their territory and minimize the migration of species outside the protected areas. The aim of our work was to create a baseline for tracking data on the characteristics of wildlife animals. The research results allow hunting farms to use the data of animal feeding preferences during different seasons of the year for better organization of their biotechnical measures and improvement of feeding conditions for such species as red deer (Cervus elaphus), elk (Cervus canadensis), roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and bear(Ursus arctos).
  • Kirje
    Influence of fertilizer application on biomass yield and nutritional quality of Mustard Spinach (Florida) Broadleaf in South Africa
    (2020) Seetseng, K.A.; Gerrano, A.S.; Mavengahama, S.; Araya, H.T.; Du Plooy, C.P.
    Mustard Spinach (Florida Broadleaf) is an indigenized leafy vegetable grown in Southern Africa. It is a good source of vitamins and mineral nutrients. An understanding of its response to fertilizer application is important in developing cultural practices for improved yield of the crop. Furthermore, improving fertilizer use efficiency such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) would result in improving cropping system. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted in 2010 and 2011 winter cropping season to determine the influence of NPK applications and their interactions on biomass yield and nutritional values of Mustard spinach. A randomized complete block design replicated four times were used for the experiment. ANOVA showed significant variation among the treatments. The values for total fresh biomass yield ranged from 252–4,510 and 820–4,982 kg ha-1 in 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons, respectively. Omission of P had 4,510 kg ha-1 of total fresh biomass yield, while omission of K had 4,506 kg ha-1 in the first season. The lowest N content (2.63%) was recorded when nitrogen fertilizer was omitted. Full NPK application increased the content of N and K on the leaf tissues of Mustard Spinach. The highest percentage of dietary fiber was observed when K was omitted. The values recorded for ascorbic acid content varied from 126.94 and 117.42 mg 100g-1 , respectively for both seasons. Iron was more concentrated on the treatments, where K was omitted. Mustard Spinach responded to fertilizer application and the results validated that application of NPK had a beneficial effect on increased production and productivity of the crop tested for small scale farmers.
  • Kirje
    Use of pyrophyllite to reduce heavy metals mobility in a soil environment
    (2020) Murtić, S.; Čivić, H.; Sijahović, E.; Koleška, I.; Jurković, J.; Tvica, M.
    This study revealed the effects of pyrophyllite ore materials on heavy metals mobility in soil plots located near the steel mill in Zenica (Bosnia and Herzegovina). The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with four pyrophyllite treatment rates i.e. 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in three replications. Analyses of the heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd) in soil and plant samples were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pyrophyllite addition in soil was found to reduce the availability of all tested heavy metals in the studied soil. The pyrophyllite addition at a rate of 200 kg ha-1 reduced Mn, Cu and Zn available forms in soil by 11.1, 20.4 and 11.2%, respectively, compared with control. The pyrophyllite addition at higher rates i.e. 400 and 600 kg ha-1 had an even higher impact on the decrease in Mn and Zn mobility in studied soil in comparison with 200 kg ha-1 . Additionally, these pyrophyllite rates have the ability to reduce Ni mobility in studied soil. The study also found a positive effect of all pyrophyllite treatments to reduce heavy metals accumulation in the leaves of potato grown on the studied soil. In sum, the results of this study indicate that pyrophyllite treatment could be an effective technique for improving the environmental quality of soils and alleviating the hazards of heavy metals to plants. However, further studies are necessary to confirm or denied this hypothesis.
  • Kirje
    Grain yield response of facultative and winter triticale for late autumn sowing in different weather conditions
    (2020) Mazurenko, B.; Kalenska, S.; Honchar, L.; Novytska, N.
    Climate change is affecting the growing conditions of winter cereals. Peculiarities of organogenesis and their impact in grain yield of facultative triticale depend on different nitrogen fertilization can help to avoid adverse effects of unfavorable conditions. Field experiment was conducted in zone of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The experiment included 2 late autumns sowing periods and fertilization system with few variants of nitrogen fertilization applied in spring. Features of organogenesis of two winter varieties and facultative triticale Pidzimok kharkivskiy were determined by apical meristem microscopy from emergence till heading. Was established process of apical meristem differentiation in facultative triticale has non-linear relation between temperature and number of spikelets. The efficiency of apical meristem differentiation reaches its maximum at 12 °C. Grain yield of triticale varieties depend on studied factors but main impact had weather conditions. Grain yield of facultative triticale significantly exceeds winter varieties and had a lesser difference between sowing period than winter cultivars. Crops in the first sowing period were more productive than in the second. Facultative triticale has great productivity potential in late autumn sowing and can realize it in various conditions. Reduced yields in late sowing are lower than in winter cultivars.