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2020, Vol. 18, No. 2

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Nüüd näidatakse 1 - 20 29
  • Kirje
    Potential for macro and micronutrients extraction from tomato plants with different soil water stresses
    (2020) Rodrigues, R.R.; Pizetta, S.C.; Pereira, G.M.; Jaeggi, M.E.P.C.; Rocha, R.S.; Pereira, I.M.; Cruz, D.P.; Batista, J.N.; Silva, R.K.G.; Bernardes, P.M.; Fonseca, A.S.; Entringer, G.C.; Gravina, G.A.
    Different tomato cultivars may present differentiated water needs, making it indispensable to study water demand. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of six water stresses in the soil on the extraction potential of macro and micronutrients in the aerial part of tomato in vegetative stage, cultivar ‘Dominador’ F1, under protected cultivation and drip. The experiment was installed in a greenhouse with a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of six soil water stresses as indicative of the time of irrigation. The preset stresses were 20, 45, 70, 95, 120 and 145 kPa at 20 cm depth. At 140 days after transplanting, the variables evaluated were: the macro and micronutrient content of shoots. The results showed that to obtain higher levels of macro (P and S) and micronutrients (B and Cu) of the total aerial part of the ‘Dominador’ tomato plant F1, it was obtained at a voltage of 20 kPa, and its value was reduced linearly with the increase of the water tension in the soil.
  • Kirje
    Fertilisation with ash from wood and with sewage sludge versus contents of macro- and microelements in the soil following cultivation of Helianthus tuberosus L.
    (2020) Zapałowska, A.; Puchalski, Cz.; Stankowski, S.; Gibczyńska, M.
    The present study investigated the effects produced in the soil by municipal sewage sludge and wood ash applied during the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke. The impact of the presence of applied the fertilizer materials on changes in soil and a macro- and microelements contents were investigated. The comparative analyses took into account 3 factors; the first factor - 4 levels of wood ash – 0; I–4.28; II–8.57; III–12.85 t ha-1, the second factor – 2 levels of sewage sludge – 0; 1 – 30.3 t ha-1, the third factor – 2 varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Gigant, Albik. Application of the fertilisers did not resulted in significant change in the total contents of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in soil examined after Jerusalem artichoke was harvested. Application of ash from coniferous trees, with high levels of calcium, resulted in increased total contents of calcium in the soil. Fertilisation of the soil with ash from coniferous trees or with sewage sludge, as well as cultivation of two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke, resulted in a significant increase in the concentrations of cadmium and lead, and produced no effects in the levels of nickel, zinc and copper identified in soil. The above findings, and in particular the fact that the limit values were not exceeded, indicate the possibility of using both sludge and biomass ash for fertilizing Jerusalem artichoke.
  • Kirje
    The study of new feed additives in the ration in newly-calved high producing cows
    (2020) Yurina, N.A.; Osepchuk, D.V.; Semenenko, M.P.; Kuzminova, E.V.; Chuprina, E.G.
    The paper highlights the results of a study on the combined use of the CattlePro Effect amido-vitamin-and-mineral complex and PassPro Ballans feed product in the diets of newlycalved high producing cows. The studies were carried out in the conditions of the Bolshevik collective farm of the Kalacheevsky district of the Voronezh region (Russia) according to the method of A.I. Ovsyannikov (1976) for three months after a 21-day equalizing period. During the course of the experiment, it was determined that the introduction of new feed additives into the diet leads to an increase in the consumption of dry matter by lactating animals by 1.0–6.2%. The basic fat content and protein content of milk was increased by 11.6–19.1%, and when adjusting the milk yield for 4% milk – by 9.3–17.4%. The digested feed particles in the feces were closer to normal in the cows of the experimental groups, which indicates the beneficial effect of the feed additive on the digestive processes of animals. When applying the studied feed additive, there was a certain decrease in enterobacteria and staphylococci in the samples of the rumen fluid and at the same time there was an increase in lactic acid microorganisms 1.6–2.0 times.
  • Kirje
    Modelling the effect of sowing date on the emergence, silking and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in a moderately warm and dry production area
    (2020) Széles, A.; Huzsvai, L.
    This research focused on accurately modelling emergence (VEEmergence) and silking (R1) dates using 5 cm deep soil temperature (ST) and how sowing date (SD) affects VEEmergence and R1 date of different maturity hybrids and which is the optimum sowing date in the changed climate. Three sowing dates were used between 4th April and 10th May. The same maize hybrids (FAO 290, FAO 350, FAO 420) were involved in the experiment between 2011–2013. The 5 cm deep soil temperature could be used for simulating the date of VEEmergence and R1 and the Percentage of Predicted Deviation (PD) was below 10%. When calculating the effective heat units (HU) at 5 cm depth, setting 6 °C as base temperature leads to better modelling. SD did not clearly affect yield since due to the influence of genotype and crop years. The FAO 290 hybrid had the lowest yield (11.534 t ha-1) and it responded sensitively to sowing date. Its highest yield (12.788 t ha-1; P < 0.05) could be obtained with SD3. FAO 350 and FAO 420 hybrids provided stable yields without any significant effect of SD. The highest yield was provided by the FAO 420 hybrid (13.494 t ha-1) with a wide SD interval (4th April – 10th May). The obtained findings help farmers in making grounded decisions to obtain high and stable yield under the changed climatic circumstances. The obtained findings help farmers in making grounded decisions to obtain high and stable yield under the changed climatic circumstances.
  • Kirje
    A food-grade antioxidant production using industrial potato peel by–products
    (2020) Sepelevs, I.; Zagorska, J.; Galoburda, R.
    Currently, industrial potato processing waste recycling and re–use is an important topic in the food industry, but no actual processing facilities could be found at the moment of this study. The main aim of present research was to develop a method that could, potentially, be practically applicable for industrial potato peel waste recycling into encapsulated phenolic compounds (fine powder), with a further approbation as an antioxidant for ground pork meat. Potato peel wastes were collected from the local potato processing facility, homogenized in the solvent media, and two accelerated extraction technologies (microwave assisted (MAE) and ultrasound accelerated extractions) were applied for the extraction of biologically active compounds and encapsulation wall material. Produced extracts were concentrated (recovered solvent had been collected and reused) and directed for spray-drying. In general, MAE alone showed higher extraction yields than in combinations with ultrasound treatment. Extracts reached maximal biologically active compound concentrations (and were possessing highest radical scavenging activities) after 10 min of MAE treatment. Produced capsules (food grade antioxidant) inhibited ground pork meat lipid oxidation during the storage study at accelerated oxidation conditions. Acquired results form a basis for development of a potato peel industrial scale processing technology.
  • Kirje
    Monitoring the species diversity of medicinal plants typical for the south slope of Hissar Ridge / Tajikistan /
    (2020) Sattarov, D.S.; Vyshegurov, S.Kh.; Galeev, R.R.
    This paper is a summary of literature reviews concerning the diversity of medicinal plants and the results of our many years studies. It includes scientific and practical justifications of the importance of monitoring species diversity of the studied object. Results of monitoring the species composition of wild medicinal plants in some areas of the southern slope of the Gissar Range are specified. As a result of studying 11 gorges (Gazhne, Safedchashma, Gusgarf, Shamal, Obi-Zugora, Gulobod, Yos, Yavroz, Semiganch, Odzhuk, Magov), 174 species of medicinal plants were found that belong to different botanical taxa. This number of plants includes representatives of 106 genera belonging to 46 families, among which representatives of the aster family predominate: Asteraceae (36 species), Rosaceae (19 species), Lamiaceae (16 species), etc. Compared with the number of known plants growing within the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan, the number of species found was 11.6%. In relation to the number of plants that are recognized as medicinal in the world, species diversity of the southern slopes of Gissar Range is less than one percent. However, the number of species is comparable to locations with similar climatic conditions.
  • Kirje
    Changes of agricultural producers in Estonia according to the size of land use
    (2020) Rasva, Marii; Jürgenson, Evelin; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering. Chair of Geomatics
    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the changes in Estonian agricultural producers according to the size of the land use. Data from the Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board (ARIB) data from 2011 and 2016 is used. This data shows that agricultural land use area per producer has increased and most of the agricultural land is used by agricultural producers in size groups 400–< 1,000 ha and > 1,000 ha. This means that a small number of agricultural producers are using a large area of agricultural land. For example, in 2016, the largest agricultural producer was using 27% of agricultural land located in Türi municipality. The outcome of the study shows a trend of farm size growth in Estonia; there is a need to find out if this model of agricultural production guarantees us food and a future of sustainability.
  • Kirje
    Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain
    (2020) Muhamedyarova, L.G.; Derkho, M.A.; Meshcheriakova, G.V.; Gumenyuk, O.A.; Shakirova, S.S.
    The influence of bio humus on chemical indicators of the arable layer of soil, productivity and ecological safety indicators of spring wheat of ‘Chelyaba - 75’ variety during the period of 2017–2019 were studied. The object of research was samples of the soil arable layer from the control and experimental field, the structure of wheat yield from control and experimental plots. Bio humus aqueous extract was introduced in the soil of the experimental field before wheat sowing and in the phase of spring tillering at the rate of 10 L/200 L /1 hm2 using the trailer sprayer ‘Zarya’ (Russia) during the dark hours of day. In the study of soil and grain samples, generally accepted methods and techniques were used. It is established that regular chernozems under the conditions of technogenic impact of emissions of thermal power plants are characterized by low humus content (4.58–4.60%) and weak acid reaction of medium (pH = 6.1–6.5); imbalance between biochemically active (copper, zinc, cobalt) and toxic (lead, nickel, cadmium) elements, as confirmed by soil contamination coefficients: for copper (C0 = 1.50–1.58), zinc (C0 = 0.79–0.85). The introduction of bio humus in the tilth top soil before sowing and during tillering of spring wheat contributed to the increase in humus composition by 1.88 times, the change in acidity to pH = 6.9–7.0, reduction of lead and cadmium concentrations in 1.63 and 1.20 times against the background of increased zinc and cobalt levels by 15.62% and 7.98%; increase of field germination of spring wheat from 75.0 ± 0.4 to 82.0 ± 0.9%; quantity of developed stems to be harvested per 1 m2 by 10.15%, productive tilling capacity by 8.33%, average quantity of spikes per ear by 20.00%, average quantity of grain per ear by 7.69%, mass of 1,000 grains by 16.12%, and wheat yield increase by 10.2 hwt ha-1 and decrease in spring wheat grain concentration of lead and cadmium at 14.00 and 16.00%.
  • Kirje
    Influence of weather condtion on the field peas (PisumsativumL.ssp. sativum) vegetation period and yield
    (2020) Kuznetsov, I.; Davletov, F.; Anokhina, N.; Akhmadullina, I.; Safin, F.
    Field pea (Pisumsativum L. ssp. sativum) is a universal pulse crop. One of the actual problems in its production is the influence of weather condition on the variability of pea economic characters and its properties. The purpose of the research (2009–2018) was to compare the vegetation period and interstage periods of the Hangildin and Chishminskiy 229 pea varieties with weather condition and seed yield. According to the results of the conducted research, it can be seen that the duration of the vegetation period and the yield of field pea grain was influenced by weather condition. The average daily air temperature affected the duration of the sowingsprouting period in pea varieties Hangildin and Chishminskiy 229. The duration of the two periods (sprouting-flowering and flowering-ripeness) was influenced by features of the used varieties and the temperature condition (r = -0.472, the link is significant and r = -0.788). The duration of the sprouting-ripeness period depended on the average daily temperatures (r = -0.481), the amount of precipitation (r = 0.937), and the HTC (hydrothermal coefficient) (r = 0.927). Precipitation increased the duration of the full vegetation period (r = 0.892). On average, over 10 years of research on field pea it should be noted that there wasa close relationship between the duration of its vegetation period (r = 0.844), the duration of the flowering-ripeness period (r = 0.679) and the yield of seeds. The relationship between the seed yield and the sowing - sprouting period (r = 0.451) and between the seed yield and the sprouting - flowering period (r = 0.446) was revealed. The connection was found positive. The connection with the average daily air temperature of this period was negative (r = -0.213). The results of the research can be successfully used during cultivation of domestic and foreign varieties of field pea. In international practice, the results of this experiment can be successfully applied in selective improvement of field pea and the development of new, high-tech varieties.
  • Kirje
    Seed size and cold stratification affect Acer negundo and Acer ginnala seeds germination
    (2020) Kiseleva, O.A.; Loretts, O.G.; Veselkin, D.V.
    The aim of this work is to determine how the germination of seeds of the invasive tree Acer negundo depends on the period of cold stratification under the snow and the duration of stratification in the air on the branches of the trees. For comparison with A. negundo, we used seeds of Acer ginnala, introduced but not invasive tree in the Middle Urals. The period of stratification in the air modeled by collecting seeds in October and December. The duration of cold stratification under the snow was 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. We hypothesized that the duration of stratification in the air did not affect the germination of A. negundo and A. ginnala seeds. Cold stratification under the snow had a positive effect on seed germination of both species. The best seed germination of A. negundo and A. ginnala was after 4 months of cold stratification under the snow, the germination rate differs: in A. negundo 12 ± 4% (small seeds) and 79 ± 7% (large seeds), in A. ginnala – 1 ± 2% (small seeds) and 18 ± 4% (large seeds). In both species, large seeds germinated at 7 to 18 times more intensively than small ones. In A. ginnala case, even after cold stratification under snow for 4 months, no more than 22% of the seeds germinated. The germination of A. ginnala seeds was 4–5 times lower than that of A. negundo seeds.
  • Kirje
    The quality of spring rape seeds and its dependence on the doses of mineral fertilizers under the conditions of Southern Urals
    (2020) Khajbullin, M.; Kadaeva, G.; Akhiyarov, B.; Valitov, A.; Gajfullin, R.
    Spring rape is a high-marginal crop that can be used in different areas of the national economy. Despite this, the area used for sowing this crop in the Russian Federation is still small, and the quality of its seeds does not always meet the standards. The purpose of the research is to identify the most effective doses of mineral fertilizers that allow obtaining the planned harvest of high-quality spring rape seeds in the southern forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The paper presents the results of triennial field researches (2016–2018) on the effect of mineral fertilizers on some indicators of the quality of spring rape seeds of the Iubileynyi variety. The research was carried out in the educational and scientific center of Bashkir State Agrarian University (Ufa, the Russian Federation) on leached black soils of heavy loam granulometric composition. The positive effect of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers on the object of interest was evident. Fertilization increased the spring rape yield capacity and its oil content by 0.34–0.51 t ha-1 and 0.1–1.8%, respectively. The yield of oil per hectare also increased. The use of fertilizers increased the content of nitrogen and potassium, averaging over three years 3.32–3.36% and 1.00–1.03%, respectively. The use of fertilizers did not significantly effect the content of phosphorus. The content of phosphorus did not exceed 1.74–1.79%. Crude protein content was 19.4–19.6% for researched period.
  • Kirje
    Effect of nitrogen fertilizations, with and without inhibitors, on cotton growth and fiber quality
    (2020) Karydogianni, S.; Darawsheh, M.K.; Kakabouki, I.; Zisi, Ch.; Folina, A.E.; Roussis, I.; Tselia, Z.; Bilalis, D.
    Considering cotton, one of the most non environmentally friendly crops, new types of fertilizers, such as the urease inhibitor, are now being used for fertilization. Furthermore, the need of increasing the nutrient use efficiency which is an important contributor to yield has arisen. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of four different urea combinations (Urea, Urea+NI+UI, Urea+NI, Urea+UI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield and fiber traits. For this purpose, different inhibitors used on urea fertilizer such as nitrification inhibitor (NI), dicyandiamide (DCD), urease inhibitor (UI), N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide, and a combination of urease (UI) and nitrification inhibitor (NI) (double inhibitor). Additionally, Nitrogen indicators were also used to evaluate the efficiency of these combinations. Two field experiments were conducted in Agrinio and Copaida region, Central Greece during 2019. The total dry weight ranged from 13,027 to 14,481 kg ha-1 in Agrinio area and from 12,567 to 14,136 kg ha-1 in Copaida area. The highest seed cotton yield was recorded under Urea+NI+UI fertilization at 5,145 kg ha-1 application in Copaida area and 5,318 kg ha-1 application in Agrinio area. Also, the total plant nitrogen uptake (kg N ha-1) was affected by the inhibitors NI and UI. The range for Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency (NUtE) index was 9.27 to 23.06. Moreover, results indicated that NI and UI inhibitors have a marked effect on fiber quality such as strength (g Tex-1). In the Mediterranean region of Greece, the combined use of inhibitors UI and NI resulted in higher yield and finest fiber quality.
  • Kirje
    Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) fodder yield and quality as affected by cutting frequency
    (2020) Kakabouki, I.; Tzanidaki, A.; Folina, A.; Roussis, I.; Tsiplakou, E.; Papastylianou, P.; Kanatas, P.; Bilalis, D.J.
    Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) is a well-adapted, fast-growing crop with competitive forage quality as its nutritive value for livestock fodder is similar to other grasses utilized as hay or ensiled feeds. Two field experiments were conducted from May to October 2017 in order to determine the effect of cutting frequency on yield and quality of teff (Eragrostis tef) as fodder crop under Mediterranean climatic conditions. The agronomic performance and nutritive value of teff was analyzed in order to define alternatives to local forages for animal feeding in the Mediterranean region. The experiments conducted at two sites (Western and Central Greece) were laid out in a completely randomized design with three replicates and three cutting frequencies (10, 20, 30 days’ interval between cuttings - F10, F20, and F30, respectively). The results of this study demonstrate that the cutting interval has a marked effect on the fodder yield and quality. The highest total dry matter yield (6,322–6,778 kg ha-1) was found in F10 treatment. In terms of qualitative characteristics, the highest fat levels and lowest ADF levels was found in F30 treatment, the highest protein levels and the lowest NDF levels in F10 treatment, and the highest levels of fibrous substances, ADF and NDF, in F20 treatment. Data suggest that teff could be successfully integrated into Mediterannean grasslands with the prospect for improving their nutritional quality and the possibility for increasing protein yield through the application of frequent cuttings.
  • Kirje
    Production of bioethanol from biomass in the conditions of Northern Kazakhstan
    (2020) Ismuratov, S.B.; Bedych, T.V.; Gluchshenko, T.I.; Ismuratov, D.S.; Kukhar, V.S.
    This article describes using renewable energy for bioethanol production. Kostanay Region is a developed agricultural region. Most part of its area is under grain crops and corn, oil crops and vegetables. In the course of production, transportation, storage and processing of agricultural crops, a large part of them becomes unsuitable for use; in future they cannot be used for the intended purpose. Substandard product often stays in the fields to rot or is thrown away. Information considered in this article demonstrates that agricultural waste can be used to produce rather inexpensive bioethanol. Most part of the population in this region is rural. Settlements are far apart from each. It would be reasonable to use bioethanol as a source of electric and thermal energy to meet the needs of rural residents and infrastructure. Wastes from bioethanol production can be used for feeding animal stock what is also important for rural areas and reduces environmental burden. In the course of human life, solid waste is formed that is suitable for producing bioethanol, and consequently, for generating thermal and electric energy. Presented calculations show the feasibility of processing municipal solid waste into bioethanol. EU countries successfully use researches performed by their scientists for developing technologies for the production of bioethanol and synthetic fuels. Kazakhstan, with its experience in cultivation of oilseeds and required planted area, can successfully develop bioethanol industry. No researches in this respect have been conducted to this day in Kazakhstan. Using bioethanol provides consumers with their own energy sources that meet quality standards, thereby increasing energy security of region, reducing the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere, and creating small-scale energy enterprises where rural residents can work.
  • Kirje
    Dependence of potato yield on weed infestation
    (2020) Barbaś, P.; Sawicka, B.
    Results of the research were based on a field experiment carried out in 2007–2009 at the Experimental Plant of the IHAR-PIB in Jadwisin, on podzolic soil with a granulometric composition of loamy sand. The experiment was established by means of a random sub-block method in a dependent split-plot pattern, in triplicate. The first order factor were the potato cultivars: ‘Irga’ and ‘Fianna’, the second order factor were the methods of weeds regulation: 1) control − without chemical protection; 2) extensive mechanical treatments (every 2 weeks) from planting to closing the rows; 3) Sencor 70 WG – 1 kg ha-1 before potato emergence; 4) Sencor 70 WG – 1 kg ha-1 + Titus 25 WG – 40 g ha-1 + Trend 90 EC – 0.1% before potato emergence; 5) Sencor 70 WG – 0.5 kg ha-1 after potato emergence; 6) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Titus 25 WG – 30 g ha-1 + Trend 90 EC – 0.1% after potato emergence; 7) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Fusilade Forte 150 EC – 2 dm3 ha-1 after potato emergence; 8) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Apyros 75 WG 26.5 g ha-1 + Atpolan 80 SC – 1 dm3 ha-1 after potato emergence. The number, floristic compositions, fresh weight and dry matter of weeds were determined. A high, yield-protective effect of herbicides was obtained as a result of limited competition of weeds. Mechanical care contributed to the increase in the total potato yield by 36.2%, and the marketable yield by 45.7%, as compared to the control object.
  • Kirje
    Study of correlation among ploidy level and steroid glycoalkaloids content in resistance in cultivated and uncultivated potato species from an in vitro genebank
    (2020) Zeka, D.; Sedlák, P.; Sedláková, V.; Vejl, P.; Fetahu, Sh.; Rusinovci, I.; Aliu, S.
    The present research was carried out with the aim to determine the correlation between ploidy level, steroid glycoalkaloids (SGAs) content and resistance against Late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary), and Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) in cultivated and wild Solanum species preserved in the Potato Gene Bank of Czech Republic. In this study 27 species were included which consist of five cultivated and 22 wild species, with a total of 31 genotypes (four species represented by two accessions). In this study 70.97% of genotypes were evaluated as diploid, 3.23% were triploid, 19.35% tetraploid and 6.45% hexaploid as depicted from counting of chromosomes. The highest concentration, of foliage α-solanine (5,450 mg kg-1 ) and α-chaconine (9,420 mg kg-1 ) of dry matter was found in the specie S. yungasense 00070, whereas lowest 1.1 mg kg-1 and 2.3 mg kg-1 in S. pinnatisectum 00051, respectively, Tukey’s test of one way anova was performed for getting significance from the data obtained and found significant variation among species of steroid glycoalkaloids (SGA) content in dry weight at level of P ≤ 0.01. Leaf damages by Leptinotarsa decemlineata under field experiment circumstances were also recorded. In vitro study, S. bulbocastanum PIS 06-17 and S. bulbocastanum 00240 shown resistant to P. infestans upon inoculation of aggressive isolates and strong resistance was observed in S. stoloniferum 00295, S. sucrense 0062 and S. yungasense 0070. Nevertheless, there was no correlation of ploidy level, SGA contents and resistance to the CPB (r = 0.00) and late blight (r = 0.076) found in the investigated Solanum species.
  • Kirje
    The theory of vibrational wave movement in drying grain mixture
    (2020) Bulgakov, V.; Holovach, I.; Kiurchev, S.; Pascuzzi, S.; Arak, Margus; Santoro, F.; Anifantis, A.S.; Olt, Jüri; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Institute of Technology
    This paper outlines a theory that involves the vibrational wave transportation of bulk grain during the course of passing that grain under an infrared radiation source, in a working thermal radiation drying chamber, and using a vibrational wave transporter belt that has been developed by the authors of this paper. The main outstanding feature of the proposed design is the presence of mechanical off-centre vibration drives which generate the vibration in the working rollers at a preset amplitude and frequency, thereby generating a mechanical wave on the surface of the flexible transporter belt which ensures the movement of bulk grain along the processing zone which itself is being subjected to infrared radiation. A calculation method was developed for the oscillation system that is used in conjunction with the vibrational transportation of the grain mass, in order to be able to determine the forces that may be present in the vibrational system and to prepare the differential calculations for the movement of the vibrational drive’s actuators, utilising for this purpose Type II Lagrange equations. The solving of the aforementioned integral equations on a PC yielded a number of graphical dependencies in terms of kinetic and dynamic parameters for the vibrational system described above; the analysis of those dependencies provided a rational structural, along with kinetic and dynamic indicators. According to the results that were taken from theoretical and experimental studies on the functioning of the developed infrared grain dryer combined with a vibrational exciter, stable movement for its working roller takes place if the angular velocity of a drive shaft is changed within the range of between 50–80 rads–1 , whereas the amplitude of the indicated oscillations falls within the range of 3.0–4.0 mm. It has been discovered that a rational speed when transporting soy seeds during infrared drying falls between the range of between 0.15–0.60 cm s -1 , whereas the amplitude of the indicated oscillations falls within the range of 3.0–4.0 mm. An increase of this parameter within the stated limits increases the time that it takes to achieve the stage in which a constant drying soy speed is reached by more than 2.5 times (from 205 seconds to 520 seconds), stabilising the figure at a level of 520 seconds, which makes it possible to recommend a range of transport speeds of between 0.15–0.40 cm s –1 under infrared radiation for the seeds in order to achieve the required moisture content with a single pass of the produce on the wave transporter. With that in mind, the power consumption levels for the vibrational exciter do not exceed 50W, while the angular velocity of the drive shaft’s rotation falls within the range of between 100– 120 rads–1 . The results of the experimental study that has been conducted indicated that a rational transportation speed for the soy seeds on the wave transporter under infrared radiation is between 0.15–0.40 cm s –1.
  • Kirje
    A prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga Municipality. Colombia
    (2020) Ahmadi, T.; Casas Díaz, C.A.; García Vera, Y.E.; Escobar Escobar, N.
    Crop and animal production generate a high level of organic waste that causes negative effects on the environment and communities. The use of composting processes can improve the quality of these biowastes. Additionally, the application of technologies such as telemetry and remote sensors, allows optimizing the transformation of organic matter in a more controlled and efficient way. The city of Fusagasugá is well known in agriculture. However, it lacks sustainable management of the organic waste system. In this study, after a three-dimensional electromechanical design, a prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga municipality will provide. The capacity of this prototype reactor is considered to be 20 litres. In order to control temperature and humidity of biowastes in different working conditions, it is used A PI controller with 3 temperature and a humidity sensors. With these sensors the compost materials temperature and humidity will remain at 65 °C and 55–60%. By using a special form of temperature sensor placement, the time to oxygenate the compost materials will be found. Furthermore, this system is integrated by a Human-Machine Interface (HMI), which allows the supervision and manipulation from a remote access user.
  • Kirje
    Theoretical and experimental research into impact of threshing tools in combine grain harvesters on quality of cereal crop seeds
    (2020) Derevjanko, D.; Holovach, I.; Bulgakov, V.; Kuvachev, V.; Olt, Jüri; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Institute of Technology
    The theoretical and experimental research into the micro-damaging of cereal crop seeds in the process of their harvesting by combine grain harvesters in relation to the strains, forces and stresses imparted to them by the threshing tools has been carried out. The propagation of deformations and cracks in the seeds as well as the nature of their strength and the damage that is sustained, when the critical load is applied, have been investigated. It has been established that the onset of cracks, the direction of their propagation and their quantity in the bodies of grain seeds depends in the majority of cases on the direction of action of the external forces and the specifics of the seeds’ internal biological properties. It has been established that the strength of the grain seed is, apart from the arisen cracks, also under the significant effect of the microtraumas in the germ, endosperm as well as the seed coat and shell. Theoretical calculations have been carried out on the PC and the effect that the drum and rotor threshing apparatus have on the deformation and damage sustained by cereal crop seeds has been substantiated. The said calculations and the obtained graphic relations support the results of the experimental investigations and prove that the macro- and especially micro-damage sustained by the seeds of winter wheat and rye is different, when they are threshed with the use of different types of threshing apparatus, which has a considerable impact on the final quality of the harvested cereal crop seeds. The results obtained in the experimental investigations, field and laboratory tests on the topic of the effect of mechanical loading on the sustained damage and quality of seeds indicate that the damage rate accounted for the work processes of the reaping and postharvest treatment of the cereal crop heaps of different winter wheat varieties with the use of rotor threshing apparatus is 3.1% as compared to the drum threshing apparatus – 6.4%, that is, 2 times lower. The total amount of the seeds with microtraumas collected in the hopper after threshing amounts to 23.0% and 54.0%, respectively, which is a significant difference. Similar results have been obtained in the experimental investigations on the effect of the equipment on the sustained damage and quality of seeds in the cleaning, chemical treatment and sowing of cereal crops.
  • Kirje
    Lean-inspired development work in agriculture: Implications for the work environment
    (2020) Andersson, K.; Eklund, J.; Rydberg, A.
    Farmers operate in a turbulent environment that includes international competition, weather conditions and animal behaviour, for example, and is difficult for them to control. However, economy and productivity always have a high priority. As a consequence, farms have started to implement lean-inspired work systems. At the same time, health and safety are of urgent concern in the sector. This article explores how famers apply lean-inspired work processes. It identifies work environment changes during and after a lean implementation, as well as possible developments in the work environment following implementation of the lean philosophy. Data were collected from three groups: lean, lean-light and development-inclined reference farms (in total 54 farms), using a questionnaire and interviews. The results indicate that a majority of the lean farms were applying several lean principles and tools, and the lean philosophy. The leanlight farms applied parts of the lean concept, while the reference farms applied some of the more general tools, used in lean and elsewhere, such as visualisation in various forms and to various extents. The results showed positive effects of lean on the psychosocial work environment, better work structure and improved information, communication and co-operation. The physical work environment was improved to some extent by lean, where advantages such as a more structured and practical work environment with less physical movements and locomotion could be noticed. The lean concept provided a more structured and systematic approach to dealing with work and production environmental issues, for managers as well as for employees.