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2019, Vol. 30, Special Issue 2

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  • Kirje
    Energy efficiency of consumption – methods of analysis and evaluation
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Karpov, Valerij; Zhguliov, Jevgenij; Kabanen, Toivo; Annuk, Andres; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Institute of Technology. Chair of Energy Application Engineering
    Technical, economic, and social need to define and control the efficiency of energy usage – consumer energy efficiency implies the necessity to determine the exact contents of this new concept. A deeper analysis of a consumer energy system in order to support the consumer energy efficiency value appropriate for the contents should be carried out to find the factors that affect the value. This article shows that for the purposes of advanced energy consumption analysis, the consumer energy system becomes an integral part of the whole energy system (starting with the energy generation facility) which forms the demand for the produced energy and its usage efficiency. The consumer energy system is so important that in the course of developing and improving the electric supply and consumption systems, it questions the traditional priority of the first component (energy supply) and adaptive dependence of the second one. This article proves, inter alia, that manufacturers can raise their consumer energy efficiency by improving the production technology, using materials with new properties, modernizing the energy equipment, switching to automatic enterprise design systems and using other means commonly known as scientific and technical progress.
  • Kirje
    Retraction: Determination of efficiency in the design phase of the enterprise by the method of finite relations
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Karpov, Valerij; Nemtsev, Artem; Kabanen, Toivo; Annuk, Andres; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Institute of Technology. Chair of Energy Application Engineering
    The manuscript "DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY IN THE DESIGN PHASE OF THE ENTERPRISE BY THE METHOD OF FINITE RELATIONS" by Valerij Karpov, Artem Nemtsev, Toivo Kabanen and Andres Annuk was submitted to Agraarteadus on 3 November 2019, accepted on 15 November 2019 and published on In Press on 29 November 2019. In December 2021, we received expressions of concern from the Academic Ethics Commission of the Estonian University of Life Sciences about similarities with the article entitled "Determination of efficiency in the design phase of the enterprise by the method of finite relations" ("Opredelenie jenergeticheskoj jeffektivnosti na jetape proektirovanija predprijatija metodom konechnyh otnoshenij") [In Russian] by Valerij Karpov and Artem Nemtsev submitted to Bulletin of MSTU, vol. 18, no. 4, 2015, pp. 709– 718 (Vestnik MGTU, tom 18, # 4, 2015 g. str. 709–718). The expert of the Academic Ethics Commission of the Estonian University of Life Sciences analysed articles for similarities. The analysis revealed that the two articles reported the same experiments and the same results. Small divergences existed in the list of authors, in the Introduction, and the References. These divergences, however, are minor and were explained by the corresponding author. The corresponding author admitted that he was not aware of a previously published article. As a result, the article in Agraarteadus, accepted at a later date, is considered a duplicate publication. On this basis, we have decided to retract the article.
  • Kirje
    Tööõnnetuste levimus eesti põllumajanduses aastatel 2008–2017
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Enn, Anni; Merisalu, Eda; Eesti Maaülikool. Tehnikainstituut. Biomajandustehnoloogiate õppetool
    Occupational accidents in agriculture are a problem all over the world. The costs of accidents are high to the employer and to the national economy as a whole. Work-related ill-health and injury is costing the European Union 3.3% of its GDP. In Estonia, the estimates of the costs of work accidents (WA) in 2012 showed €2.4 billion per year and due to permanent lost workability €25 billion costs in total for society. Even if the most sectors become more automated, there are also self-employed farmers, who cannot always use the newest technologies. At the same time, family members and farm workers are facing risks higher than in most other occupations. Many accidents involve the handling of machinery or animals. The objective of the study was to analyse fatal and non-fatal work accidents by demographic parameters, severity, type, causes and body location of injuries in Estonian agriculture in 2008–2017. Method. The database of accidents in agriculture was obtained from the Estonian Labour Inspectorate and the data by absolute numbers, percentages and incident rates have described. Results. The total number of accidents at work in agriculture was 1696, which formed 4% from the total economic sector. The average incident rate in the past decade was 678 accidents per 100 000 workers. Predominantly minor accidents and usually among male workers have taken place. There are mainly 3 types of injuries – wounds and superficial injuries (40.4% of the total), bone fractures (25.6%) and concussion and internal injuries (16.2%). The most common causes of work accidents are lack of internal control (20.3%), poor instruction (18.5%) and other factors (18.1%). The most often locations of the injuries throughout the years were upper or lower limbs (35.7% and 33.0% respectively). The biggest number of accidents was taken place at Järva county.
  • Kirje
    Analysis and evaluation of effectiveness of interventions for prevention of occupational accidents
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Shkrabak, Vladimir; Levashov, Sergei; Shkrabak, Roman; Kaljuga, Vasily; Merisalu, Eda; Kabanen, Toivo; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Institute of Technology. Chair of Energy Application Engineering
    Transition to the concept of professional risk management assumes the transfer of focus from measures of response to accidents after they have happened to activities for preventive measures, i.e. risk management of workers' health. The strategy of "reactive" response within the framework of the traditional system of managing occupational safety of workers focused primarily on compensating for the negative consequences of accidents. However, it does not focus on eliminating the systemic causes of their occurrence and, as a result, does not lead to positive changes in reducing traumas and injuries. The results of the analysis of the socio-economic efficiency of this strategy suggest the need for a transition to a different type of occupational safety management – which is "proactive", therefore the priorities are not the management of "occupational environment", but the management of "employee work safety", based on identification and assessment of professional risks. The calculation of the economic efficiency of measures for employee protection and the prevention of industrial injuries on the example of agricultural workers in the Kurgan region was the aim of the present study.
  • Kirje
    Pulsavi meetod töötaja töö raskusastme ja energeetilise koormatuse määramiseks ja hindamiseks
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Reppo, Boris; Kuzmin, Jüri; Eesti Maaülikool. Tehnikainstituut. Biotehnoloogiate õppetool
    Human-centred evaluation of technology and work techniques requires the determination of the workload category and the internal workload, which is the internal response of the worker to exposure to external load factors in the work environment. The aim of this paper is to present a method for a human-centred analysis of the work process. The method requires the worker's physiological data, which is used to process their wirelessly transmitted heart rate. The processed heart rate is combined with a video feed and displayed in real time on a computer. This allows monitoring the worker's actions and the corresponding workload category, total energy expenditure, work-related energy expenditure, and base metabolic rate. Using the method does not interrupt the work process and it is possible to save the data for further analysis. The method has been recognised as an invention and is protected with patent EE 05807 B1.
  • Kirje
    Juhtumianalüüs: Energiakulu analüüs põllumajandustoodangu väärindamisel talus autoklaavi abil
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Palge, Veli; Grigor, Andres; Eesti Maaülikool. Tehnikainstituut. Energiakasutuse õppetool
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the causes and distribution of autoclave energy consumption between the various stages of the technological process and identify ways to reduce energy costs. It was found that the recovery of waste heat is the most effective way to reduce energy consumption.