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2023, Vol. 34, No. 1

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  • Kirje
    Leetunud muld on Eesti aasta 2023 muld
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2023) Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Eesti Maaülikool. Põllumajandus ja keskkonnainstituut. Mullateaduse õppetool
    For the Year 2023 Soil of Estonia by the Estonian Soil Science Society was elected the Podzolic or podzolized soil, which is known by the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) as Umbric Podzol. In introduction of actual review the Podzolic soils’ morphology and their subdivision principles (by moisture conditions and profile development) are analysed. By the Estonia Soil Classification totally seven species of podzolized automorphic soils have been separated, from which each species have an original code used in the soil mapping. By mean of schematic map is characterized the distribution of these soils in Estonia, but by mean of normally developed soils’ matrix the co-evolution with other soil species. Podzolic soils are formed totally 5.0% from the total Estonian soil cover, but 4.3% from the forest and 5.2% from the arable land. Special attention was payed to humus status of these soils, characterizing among others humus cover (or humipedons) fabric and essential properties separately on forest and arable lands. Beside of depending on soil texture, moisture conditions and land use, soil quantitative characteristics (given by soil species or by soil groups), as well the results of comparative analysis and using peculiarities of Podzolic soils in agricultural practice have been explained. At end of the review the possibilities for characterizing Podzolic soils’ species and varieties peculiarities by mean of principal and supplemental qualifiers WRB is explained.
  • Kirje
    Ülevaade taimsete lisandite antimikroobse toime uuringutest in vitro ja tooretes seahakklihatoodetes
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2023) Meremäe, Kadrin; Koskar, Julia; Püssa, Tõnu; Raudsepp, Piret; Anton, Dea; Roasto, Mati; Eesti Maaülikool. Veterinaarmeditsiini ja loomakasvatuse instituut. Veterinaarse biomeditsiini ja toiduhügieeni õppetool
    Plant additives can be used in food technologies as natural additives to replace synthetic food additives partially or completely. The the present work aims to give an overview of studies that have been carried out over the years 2011–2019 in the Department of Food Hygiene and Safety at the Estonian University of Life Sciences on the antimicrobial activity of plant additives in vitro as well as in raw minced pork products in the perspective to find effective candidates to use them further in meat products. The findings of the in vitro studies showed that the strongest bacterial growth inhibition was observed in the 96% ethanol extracts of rhubarb root and petiole as well as berries of blackcurrant and chokeberry. In the present in vitro study, plant extracts had the strongest antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter jejuni. In raw minced pork studies, the total microbes as well as yeasts and molds were inhibited in raw minced pork samples only in the presence of powders of rhubarb petioles and tomato or their mixture. In conclusion, this work revealed that powders of rhubarb, tomato and berries of blackcurrant and chokeberry are pers- pective candidates for inhibiting microbial growth in raw minced pork products.
  • Kirje
    Kliimamuutustega seotud kohanemismeetmete rakendamine põllumajandusettevõtetes
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2023) Nurk, Krista; Nurmet, Maire; Eesti Maaülikool. Põllumajandus- ja keskkonnainstituut. Maamajanduse ökonoomika õppetool
    Agriculture is facing severe changes due to climate change and extreme weather events. Attention to climate change has been high- lighted in the Common Agricultural Policy, the issue of risk management. Implementation of risk management methods among farmers who make their everyday business decisions in uncertainty, is part of decision making, and depends on the farmers experience and knowledge. This paper aims to find out the assessments of Estonian farmers about the risk factors arising from climate change and the importance of coping adaption measures to climate change. Data from a web-based questionnaire survey of questions with structured statements on perception of production risk and adaption measures were analysed. The main results showed that perception of production risk differed by farmers’ age, geographical area and farm sizes. Relevant risk management practices were different according to farm annual revenue, geographical area and the age of a farmer. The results could be used by agricultural policy makers. Future policies for the agricultural sector are elemental to ensure success in farm- scale implementation. Based on this study it could be further explored risk management practices, which are already used by farmers. It is important because climate change and extreme weather events are increasing, and risk management practices are needed for adaptation.
  • Kirje
    Umbrohtude biomassi, arvukuse ja mitmekesisuse muutused pikaajalise külvikorra katse teises rotatsioonis
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2023) Madsen, Helena; Luik, Anne; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Mäeorg, Erkki; Talgre, Liina; Eesti Maaülikool. Põllumajandus- ja keskkonnainstituut
    The effects of long term (established in 2008) five-field crop rotation (barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with undersown red clover (Trifoium pratense L.), red clover, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)) on the biomass, abundance and diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) of weeds in three organic (Org) and two conventional (Conv) systems after the second rotation were investigated. The results include data from the second rotation in 2013 – 2017. The control system (Org 0) followed only the crop rotation. In the organic systems Org I and Org II winter cover crops were used. In Org II system composted cattle manure was also applied. The conventional cropping systems were treated with herbicides and fungicides and system Conv 0 acted as control (no fertilizer use). Mineral fertilizer was used in Conv II. In general, the significant differences were evident between conventional and organic cropping systems. There were also some differences depending on the crop. The weed biomass was the lowest in barley and potato plots, with significantly higher values in organic than in conventional systems. In clover plots the highest biomass of weeds occurred in Conv II whilst the lowest in Org I. In winter wheat plots the biomass of weeds was significantly lower in conventional systems than in any of the organic systems. Pea plots had the highest biomass, abundance and diversity of weeds in all systems within all rotational crops. Slight tendencies showed the decrease of weed abundance and diversity at the end of the rotation in systems with cover crops (Org I and Org II). This could be explained by better growing conditions due to higher microbial activity and organic carbon content in the soil of organic systems.
  • Kirje
    Sulfoonamiidide ja fluorokinoloonide akumuleerumine mullast taimedesse
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2023) Lillenberg, Merike; Kipper, Karin; Herodes, Koit; Astover, Alar; Toomsoo, Avo; Anton, Dea; Nei, Lembit; Eesti Maaülikool. Veterinaarmeditsiini ja loomakasvatuse instituut. Veterinaarse biomeditsiini ja toiduhügieeni õppetool; Eesti Maaülikool. Põllumajandus- ja keskkonnainstituut. Mullateaduse õppetoo
    The current study was conducted to determine the potential for some antibiotics to be taken up by food plants from soil fertilized with manure, sewage sludge or its compost containing antibiotic residues. The plants (potato – Solanum tuberosum L., carrot – Daucus carota L., and wheat – Triticum aestivum L.) were cultivated in greenhouse under natural light conditions in the presence of three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin), and two sulfonamides (sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxazole). The uptake of antibiotics was demonstrated from two different soils (loamy and loamy sand). The concentrations of each antibiotic in soil were 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 10 mg kg–1. The antibiotics were extracted from the plants using the liquid extraction (LE) and cleaned up by the solid phase extraction (SPE). The extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The accumulation range depended on antibiotic con- centration in soil, chemical properties of the antibiotic, soil type, plant species and parts (overground or below-ground). At soil concentrations of 10 mg kg–1 antibiotics accumulated in edible parts of most plants in amounts, which exceeded their maximum residue levels (MRL) set for food of animal origin – 100 μg kg–1. The highest average content of antibiotics was detected in potato tubers and carrot roots grown in the loamy sand soil – 3897 μg kg–1 and 3400 μg kg–1 sulfamethoxazole. Plants accumulated antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin) from soil even at soil concentration of 0.01 mg kg–1. Mostly the highest concentrations of antibiotics were detected in below-ground parts of the plants grown in the loamy-sand soil.
  • Kirje
    Influence of fertilizing and tillage systems on humus content of typical chernozem
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2023) Voitovyk, Мykhailo; Butenko, Andrii; Prymak, Іvan; Mishchenko, Yurii; Tkachenko, Mykola; Tsyuk, Оleksii; Panchenko, Оleksandr; Sleptsov, Yurii; Kopylova, Tetiana; Havryliuk, Oleksandr
    The study aimed to measure the effect of tillage and fertilizing systems in short crop rotation on the content, and сomposition of humuse’s substances in soil’s type as typical chernozem of the zone Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The highest humus content was determined in the variant with the application of 11.5 t ha–1 of organic fertilizers + N27P38K45 kg ha–1. The humus content in the 0–10 cm layer against the background of shallow tillage without a moldboard was 4.25%, with moaldboard-subsurface tillage – 4.23%. These tillage systems have the most favourable effect on the formation and humus matter (t ha–1). The humus storage in the variant of shallow subsurface tillage was 41.4 t ha–1, i.e. 1.3 t less than in differentiated tillage. The use of soil without fertilizing led to significant humus losses and deterioration of the compound of humus substances due to mineralization processes that prevail over immobilization processes. When applying 11.5 t of organic fertilizers and (N27P38K45) mineral fertilizers per hectare of crop rotation area, the number of humic substances increased significantly and the amount of fulvic acids in the top layer decreased. The ratio of HA (Humic acids) to FA (Fulvic acids) is 2.48. The type of humus formation is humus- fulvatic.
  • Kirje
    Quantity of colouring substance in grapes and raisins from seedlesss hybrid forms with coloured grape juice (Vitis vinifera L.)
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2023) Roychev, Venelin; Keranova, Neli
    A study of the amount of colouring substance in the skins and juice of grapes and raisins of seedless vine forms with coloured grape juice of six hybrid combinations was performed. It was found that most of the hybrid forms of all crosses were superior to the mother variety Alicante Bouschet in the amount of anthocyanins in the grape juice, and only a few ones have mathematically proven differences. Most of them do not differ from the parent variety in colour intensity and colour shade, as well as in the percentage of yellow, red and blue colour. The ‘Alicante Bouschet’ variety has a proven lower content of anthocyanins in the skins of grapes and raisins of several hybrid forms. There is a proven high or moderate positive correlation between the content of anthocyanins in the skins and the juice of the grapes and the intensity of the colour in the hybrid forms of most crosses. Approximately 47% of the increase in the intensity of the colour of the grape juice can be explained by an increase in the amount of anthocyanins, and only 27% of the reasons for the changes in the intensity of the colour of the grapes are due to factors that do not affect changes in the content of anthocyanins in them.
  • Kirje
    Vahekultuuride biomassi moodustamise ja lämmastiku sidumise võime ning mõju suviodra saagile
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2023) Toom, Merili; Talgre, Liina; Tamm, Sirje; Tamm, Ülle; Tamm, Ilmar; Narits, Lea; Talve, Tiina; Edesi, Liina; Lauringson, Enn; Eesti Maaülikool. Põllumajandus ja keskkonnainstituut. Mullateaduse õppetool
    Cover crops play an important role in preventing nutrient loss, reducing agricultural inputs, improving soil quality and environmental sustainability. The objectives of the study were to determine the biomass and nitrogen accumulation of cover crops and their effect on the following spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Field trials with cover crop species winter rye (Secale cereale L), winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa spp. oleifera L.), forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), and berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) were carried out during four growing seasons (2016/17, 2017/18, 2018/19, and 2019/20) at the Estonian Crop Research Institute (present: The Centre of Estonian Rural Research and Knowledge, METK). Cover crop biomass and N accumulation in autumn and in spring depended on species and growing conditions. The biomass and nitrogen (N) accumulation were at their lowest in the first growing season (2016/17) due to lowest level of effective temperatures. Forage radish accumulated the highest amount of biomass and N in autumn. Berseem clover accumulated lowest amount of biomass and N in the year with drought conditions (2018) before sowing. Among overwintered cover crops, hairy vetch accumulated the highest amount of N in the spring although its biomass was similar to winter turnip rape. Winter rye had the lowest biomass and N accumulation in spring. As an average over the four years, only forage radish and hairy vetch significantly increased the yield of subsequent barley. None of the cover crops had a negative effect on barley, as the yield level following other species was similar to the control without cover crop. The knowledge about cover crop selection is useful to integrate suitable species into Estonian cropping systems.