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2019, Vol. 30, No. 1

Selle kollektsiooni püsiv URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10492/5575

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  • Kirje
    Effect of VAT rate reduction for fruits and vegetables on prices in Latvia: ex-post analysis
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Nipers, Aleksejs; Upite, Ilze; Pilvere, Irina; Stalgiene, Aldona; Viira, Ants-Hannes; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Institute of Economics and Social Sciences. Chair of Rural Economics
    Latvia reduced Value Added Tax (VAT) rate for some fresh fruits and vegetables in 2018. The reduced VAT rate is set at 5%, while the standard VAT rate in the country is 21%. The rate was reduced for a 3-year period, during which it is intended to assess the impacts of the policy and to decide whether to keep the reduced VAT rate after the period ends. This research aims to evaluate whether VAT reduction reduced retail prices of fruits and vegetables. As prices on various fruits and vegetables are quite volatile, we used prices for exactly the same products in neighbouring Estonia and Lithuania as controls. We found that although in the first year after the VAT reduction retail prices decreased considerably, the decrease was smaller than the VAT reduction – the passthrough effect was 88%. However, due to the limited competition in the retail sector, it is important to continue observation in order to draw conclusions about the long-term effect.
  • Kirje
    Ülevaade : Eesti aastamuld 2019 on madalsoomuld
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnis; Eesti Maaülikool. Põllumajandus- ja Keskkonnainstituut. Mullateaduse õppetool
    By the Estonian Soil Sciences Society for the Year 2014 Soils the Leached soils, for 2015 – Limestone rendzinas, for 2016 – Bog soils, for 2017 – Typical podzols, for 2018 – Pseudopodzolic soils, and for 2019 – Fen soils (M) were elected. As the Year Soil of 2019 was not previously introduced in the Journal of Agricultural Science, in the actual overview was necessary to treat their classification, ecological conditions of their forming and functioning, hydro-physical and ecological properties, association of them with other soil species, distribution and conversion their names into WRB system. In the review, the main morphological properties of fen soils and the principles of their dividing into soil species (identified by soil genesis) and varieties (divided on basis of peat decomposition stage) are treated. Besides that, the fen soils' productivity, peculiarities of their paludification processes, distribution in Estonia and the data about their chemical properties are presented. In the overview, as well, the estimations of organic carbon stocks and assessments of annual organic carbon fluxes in peaty soil cover are presented and discussed. In the final part, the problems connected with environmentally sustainable use in agriculture and forestry and protection of fen soils are treated.
  • Kirje
    Ülevaade: Põllumajandusliku masinapargi arengud Eestis ajavahemikul 2010–2018
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Olt, Jüri; Ilves, Risto; Küüt, Arne; Eesti Maaülikool. Tehnikainstituut. Biotehnoloogiate õppetool
    The aim of the current research is to provide an overview of the trends in the park of agricultural machinery in Estonia during the period 2010–2018. For this purpose, data obtained from the registers of Agriculture and Transport of Statistics Estonia have been used. The article outlines, firstly, changes in the number of agricultural holdings by the size of arable land and growing area of grain, secondly, changes in the number of tractors and grain harvesters, including the number of new tractors and harvesters sold over the years, thirdly, the preferences of holdings for tractors and grain harvesters, and fourthly, the categorization of new tractors and grain harvesters by the manufacturing company in the given time period. What is more, developments concomitant with trends in the park of agricultural machinery have been described.
  • Kirje
    Ülevaade: Ülevaade väävli kui talinisule olulise toiteelemendi mõju uuringutest Eestis
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Järvan, Malle
    Due to several objective reasons, the sulphur (S) deficiency in agricultural crops in Europe came to the fore in the last decades before the turn of the century. This work gives an overview of the Estonian long-year research concerning winter wheat responses on the S fertilization. This study presents a versatile influence of S application – beginning with the influence on the yield formation, grain yield quantity and quality, followed by the one on the biological quality of wheat proteins, and on the bread-making properties of flour and dough, and ending with the one on the quality indices of baked breads. Field experiments were conducted at two locations on calcaric Cambisol and Podzoluvisol. On the background of N100 or 120 kg ha-1, S was given as granular NS-fertilizers or foliar applied with Sulfur F3000 or with fungicide Thiovit Jet. Flour and dough properties for bread-making were determined by using a farinograph Brabender. The baking tests were carried out in laboratory conditions. The influence of S on the grain yield and quality, and bread-making properties of wheat depended on the year and location. As the average of experiments, the S application significantly increased the grain yield (r = 0.960). The increasing yields were accompanied by decreasing contents of protein and wet gluten. However, due to S application the biological quality of proteins was increasing, because the contents of some essential amino acids were increasing. The significant positive (r = 0.938) effect of the S application on the Gluten index was revealed, which is a good predictor for the baking quality of wheat flour. In addition, some significant positive effects of the S application on the rheological properties of dough and quality indices of baked breads were demonstrated. Thus, the S addition by nitrogen fertilization in parallel with increasing yields improved several bread-making parameters of wheat flour.
  • Kirje
    Short communication: The influence of vermicompost based substrates on basil growth and nutrient content
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Olle, Margit
    Vermicompost produced by earthworms is rich in macro- and micronutrients, vitamins and growth hormones, which are all needed for successful plant growth. The influence of vermicompost based growth substrates on basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) growth and nutrient content was assessed. Treatments were: 1. 30% vermicompost, peat, sand, dolomite stone; 2. 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, perlite; 3. 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, light gravel, 4. commercially available growth medium, or 5. 20% vermicompost and organic matter rich clay soil. Basil growth was best with treatments 1 and 2. Nutrient content of basil was best in treatment 3. The best growth substrate for basil production is treatment 1, based on growth results, while based on nutrient analysis when basil is used in medicine, the right treatment is 3: 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, light gravel.
  • Kirje
    Short communication: The improvement of the quality, and nutrient content of leaf celery transplants by effective microorganisms
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2019) Olle, Margit
    Effective microorganisms (EM) comprise a mixture of live natural cultures of microorganisms isolated from fertile soils that are used to improve crop production. The purpose was to assess the influence of EM on the growth and nutrient content of leaf celery transplants. Two treatments were compared: 1) EM treatment comprised of seed soaking in EM 1:500 solution, sowing in EM treated peat and watering the plants weekly with EM solution. 2) Control treatment included similar treatments with water. Leaf celery transplants grown with EM were significantly shorter and had thicker stems than those grown without EM. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium increased in transplants grown with EM compared to those grown without EM. The contents of nitrates and magnesium did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusion: EM improves the growth and increases nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium contents of leaf celery transplants.