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2020, Vol. 18, Special Issue 3

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  • Kirje
    Rheological and physical–chemical properties of yogurt with oat–chia seeds composites
    (2020) Nadtochii, L.A.; Baranenko, D.A.; Lu, W.; Safronova, A.V.; Lepeshkin, A.I.; Ivanova, V.A.
    Currently chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) are considered as a filler of functional food. However, ground chia seeds have a low viscosity and cohesion properties that are limited its applications. Based on previous data oat-chia seeds composites in different proportions as filler for yogurt have been tested. The investigation of water holding capacity of samples allowed to select the yogurt with filler in the ratio of 1:1 (oat bran:chia seed) in the amount of 3% and 5% as the most close to the control sample without any filler. The rheological characteristics of yogurt samples were investigated and their thixotropic and viscoelastic properties were identified depending on the amount of filler in the product. The yogurt without any filler had the less thixotropic properties in compare with yogurt with oat-chia seeds composites. The structure recovery of yogurt with 3% and 5% filler was close to 100% and greater than 100% respectively. Based on the data of G' and G" moduli was possible to ascertain the yogurt with filler has more viscoelastic properties compared with yogurt without filler. Yogurt with 5% filler exceeds yogurt without filler in biological value according to the content of essential amino acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  • Kirje
    Analysis of safety indicators for poultry products produced in subsidiary farms in penitentiary facilities
    (2020) Chernikova, O.; Pityurina, I.; Terentyev, A.; Rakhmaev, E.
    The production of poultry, eggs and their processed products is growing rapidly worldwide. Poultry products are in great demand; however, they are a source of a number of risks: physical, chemical, as well as microbiological. Ensuring food safety is currently the main aspect for the global food industry, including for the production of poultry products. The article discusses the safety and quality of poultry products produced in subsidiary farms of correctional facilities of the penal system. Attention is drawn to the risks and threats of sanitary and epidemiological well-being that arise in connection with the intensification of the impact of negative environmental factors. In the subsidiary farms of correctional facilities, the cage-type bird keeping system and the frequency of feeding are regulated depending on the age of the bird. The results of the analysis have shown that poultry and chicken eggs comply with established sanitary standards. Thus, the average heavy metal content in poultry meat was: Hg - 0.0061 mg kg-1 , Cd - 0.0233 mg kg-1, As - 0.0501 mg kg-1, Pb - 0.1765 mg kg-1; in the egg: Hg - 0.0072 mg kg-1 , Cd - 0.0198 mg kg-1, As - 0.0485 mg kg-1, Pb - 0.1812 mg kg-1. Antibiotics, radionuclides and dioxins were not found in poultry meat. The pesticide content in poultry meat was below the permissible level: by 2.2 times of DTM and its metabolites, and hexachlorocyclohexane (a, b, g - isomers) - by 5 times. Coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus, as well as pathogenic salmonella, listeria were not found in poultry meat and eggs. NMAFAnM in meat amounted to 0.5×104 , in the egg - 1×103 CFU g-1 incl. In general, poultry products produced in correctional facilities are of high enough quality and can be used to prepare various dishes not only for adults but also for baby food. These estimates allow us to conclude about a fairly high level of quality and safety of this product.
  • Kirje
    Effect of simultaneous inoculation of commercial yeast starter cultures on Kombucha fermentation
    (2020) Abel, Maarja; Andreson, Helena; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences. Chair of Food Science and Technology
    Kombucha – a spontaneously fermented tea beverage, produced by SCOBY (a symbiont of bacteria and yeasts), has become popular in recent years. Its functional properties and features for industrial production and treatment remain largely unknown, however. Our aim of using additional yeast cultures during the primary fermentation was to modify and ultimately improve the sensory properties of the kombucha beverage. During five fermentation experiments the total viable count (TVC) of microbes was determined both in Kombucha and SCOBY samples. The first four fermentation experiments were conducted to stabilize the growth of SCOBYs that were initially of different origin. The last (5th) fermentation contained the simultaneous inoculation of three different active S. cerevisiae cultures into the sweetened black tea together with the SCOBY and was followed by a sensory analysis. Two samples remained as control samples without additional yeast starter culture. The yeast starter cultures affected the microbial counts of Kombucha, but the effect on the microbial count of SCOBY was not statistically significant (p >0.05). The Kombucha containing wine yeast culture had the lowest sensory quality, while Kombucha containing brewer's yeast had the most pleasant flavour and aroma. In conclusion, the simultaneous fermentation with commercial yeast cultures had a minor effect on the microbial counts in SCOBY when compared to the fermentation time, but all added cultures clearly modified the taste and aroma properties of the Kombucha drinks.
  • Kirje
    Antioxidant content of dark colored berries
    (2020) Ozola, B.; Dūma, M.
    Blackberries (Rubus caesius), elderberries (Sambucus nigra L), highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L) and black currants (Ribes nigrum) were selected for research on their content of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and comparing their content in these berries. Samples were also assayed for ascorbic acid and soluble solid content. The unifying mark of these fruits is purple-black color, which indicates high content of anthocyanins. Analyses of these fruits showed that they contain high biological activity components that justify the uses of these fruits. The research was done at the Department of Chemistry, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, year 2019. Berry samples were bought at the supermarket (highbush blueberries) or collected from garden in Jelgava, Latvia (blackberries, elderberries and black currants). All berries were at full maturity. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids as well as soluble solids was determined. Descending order of ascorbic acid content in berries is: black currants > blackberries > elderberries > highbush blueberries. Elderberries had the highest content of anthocyanins, total phenols and flavonoids on average 161.5, 537.9 and 112.6 mg 100 g -1 FW, respectively. The content of soluble solids changes from 5.83 Brix (elderberries) to 13.67 Brix (black currants).
  • Kirje
    Effect of different sugar sources on P. rhodozyma Y1654 growth and astaxanthin production
    (2020) Kanwugu, O.N.; Shatunova, S.A.; Glukhareva, T.V.; Kovaleva, E.G.
    Phaffia rhodozyma (also known as Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) is one of the most promising natural sources of commercial astaxanthin. It has high growth rates, easy cultivation conditions and able to utilize different carbon substrates. This provides an opportunity to further lower production cost by using industrial waste such as molasses. This research therefore evaluates the growth dynamic and astaxanthin production of P. rhodozyma Y1654 growing on soy and sugar beet molasses-based media. Liquid growth media based on soy molasses (SM), sugar beet molasses (SBM) and glucose (control) as main sugar source with peptone and yeast extract supplementation were inoculated with 48 h old seed culture (grown in standard glucose media: 2.0% glucose, 1.0% peptone, 0.2% yeast extract) and incubated at 20 °C with stirring speed of 180 rpm for 7 days. Samples were taken daily throughout the study period to assess; cell count, dry cell weight (DCW) and amount of astaxanthin. Soy molasses-based media resulted in the highest biomass yield (7.7 g L -1 ) followed by SBM (5.8 g L -1 ). Generally, more than 90% of initial fermentable sugar was consumed at the end of the study. However, about 40% of total sugar in SM was unassimilable by P. rhodozyma Y1654. The highest astaxanthin yield was observed in the control media (77 µg g -1 of DCW). Cultivation of P. rhodozyma Y1654 in SBM resulted in as much as twice (32.8 µg g -1 of DCW) the astaxanthin yield of SM (12.4 µg g -1 DCW). Molasses-based media are good for growth of P. rhodozyma Y1654 but for astaxanthin production, they need further optimization.
  • Kirje
    Applying beetroot as food ingredient in ice-cream production
    (2020) Evstigneeva, T.; Iakovchenko, N.; Kuzmicheva, N.; Skvortsova, N.
    The development of new food products with functional ingredients of plant origin is highly promising and relevant direction in food industry. Assortment of products, including ice cream is constantly expanding due to the introduction of various plant ingredients into its composition, enriching the product with health beneficial nutrients. In this study, beetroot (Beta vulgaris) was selected as a plant component for ice cream production. The roots of common beets contain many useful inorganic and organic substances, such as carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids, mineral salts, betalaines, vitamins, folic acid and betaine. The influence of different thermal treatment techniques of beetroots on the content of dry substances and organoleptic properties of beetroot puree have been compared and analyzed. The heat exposure technique recommended for beetroots is microwave processing for 9 minutes at a power of 800 watts. This method of heat treatment ensures the culinary readiness of vegetable raw materials while preserving dry substances in it, including betanine. The effect of the beetroot puree dose on the formation of the ice cream quality was studied. The recommended dose of the beetroot puree was established as 20%.
  • Kirje
    Winter rye (Secale cereale L.) antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and quality indices
    (2020) Linina, A.; Augspole, I.; Romanova, I.; Kuzel, S.
    Rye (Secale cereale L.) grain is an excellent raw material for healthy and tasty foods. Rye products are characterized by their unique composition and properties such as antioxidant capacity and total phenolic. The aim of the study was to assess radical scavenging capacity, total phenolic content, protein, starch content and falling number in rye varieties wholemeal. The trial included population winter rye varieties ‘Kaupo’, ‘Amilo’, ‘Dankowskie Amber’, ‘Dankowskie Rubin’, ‘Inspector’ and hybrid rye varieties ‘SU Drive’, ‘SU Mephisto’, ‘SU Bendix’, ‘Brasetto’, ‘Palazzo’ grown in Latvia. The antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) assay and total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteou method. The rye grain antioxidant capacity was estimated as Trolox equivalent, while the total phenolic content was expressed as gallic equivalents (GAE). ‘Su Drive’ rye variety contained the largest amount of total phenolic (average 208 mg GAE 100 g -1 DW), but the lowest – ‘Inspector’ rye variety 176 mg GAE 100 g -1 DW. In general, all rye samples tested in this study demonstrated similar level of antioxidant capacity (from 38.5 to 46.2 mmol Trolox eq. 100 g -1 ). Statistically higher (P < 0.05) total phenols content and falling number had hybrid rye grains, compared to the population rye grains. In the present trial, the differences between hybrid varieties grains protein and starch content comparing to population varieties were not observed.
  • Kirje
    Acceptance of low-sugar yoghurt among Latvian teenagers
    (2020) Zagorska, J.; Ciprovica, I.; Straumite, E.; Majore, K.
    Over a thousand year history, yoghurt has become one of a widely consumed product in the world. Its reputation as a healthy food has been undermined recently by concerns over the high sugar content. The majority of consumers expects and prefers yoghurts to be sweet. However, governments across Europe are calling for significant cuts in the amount of added sugar used in yoghurt production. The aim of the study was to evaluate the acceptance of low-sugar yoghurt produced by different commercial β-galactosidases by teenagers. Standardised milk with fat content 2.0% (SC Tukuma piens) was pasteurized at 95 ± 1 °C 5 min, cooled down till 43 ± 1 °C and fermented with β-galactosidase and starter YC-X11 (Chr. Hansen, Denmark) and fermented till pH 4.50 ± 0.20. Different commercial β-galactosidases: Nola™ Fit 5500, Ha-Lactase 5200 (Chr. Hansen, Denmark), GODO-YNL2 (Danisco, Denmark) and BrennZyme (Brenntag PolskaSp, Poland) were used. Fermented samples were gently mixed and cooled down till 6 ± 1 °C and 5% (w/w) of sugar was added to each sample. Sensory evaluation of the yoghurt’s samples was performed by teenagers (14–18 years, n = 50) at Aizputes Secondary School (Latvia). Lactose and monosaccharides concentration prior to sugar addition was detected by HPLC (Shimadzu LC 20 Prominence, Japan). The lactose hydrolysis into glucose and galactose by the use of β-galactosidase helps to increase sweetness through an occurrence of natural sugars in milk. During sensory evaluation, teenagers admitted the yoghurt with reduced sugar as sweet, significantly sweeter (P < 0.05) was yoghurt sample with Nola™ Fit 5500. The results demonstrated that it is possible to reduce sugar in yoghurt production and to gain consumer acceptance through the occurrence of glucose and galactose, but it is problematic to offer lactose-free or reduced lactose products to consumers without lactose intolerance.
  • Kirje
    Development of formulation and technology of non-dairy soy-coconut yogurt
    (2020) Kosterina, V.; Yakovleva, A.; Koniaeva, V.; Iakovchenko, N.
    Yogurt provides an organism with probiotics, which can help digestion. However, many people do not consume dairy for a lot of reasons such as lactose intolerance, milk protein allergy, environmental and ethical concerns. The aim of the research was to develop formulation and technology of plant-based yogurt made of coconut and soy milk. The possibility of using the composition of coconut and soy milk was investigated. The effect of using different ratios of coconut and soy milk on rheological and sensory acceptability was studied. Soy milk containing 20, 30, 40 and 50% coconut milk were used in the production of soy yoghurt using commercially available yoghurt starter. The physico-chemical composition, water activity, rheological and organoleptic properties, fatty acid composition and microorganism viability were investigated. Presented production procedure enables the manufacture of a product with satisfactory functional properties and organoleptic properties.
  • Kirje
    Biochemical composition and quality of herring preserves with addition of bio-protective cultures
    (2020) Bazarnova, J.; Korableva, N.; Ozerova, O.; Moskvicheva, E.
    Herrings rich in vitamins B12, A, D, minerals, including calcium, potassium, magnesium, iodine, possess high levels of lysine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan, as well as omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids, namely eicosapentanoic, docosahexoenoic and docosapentoenoic. To suppress the microbiological spoilage of fish preserves, it is promising to use bio-protective cultures that have minimal impact on the production process and product properties. Bacterial strains are able to exert a static effect on the microflora, which causes biodeterioration of food products. Microorganisms as part of bio-protective cultures are included in the fermentation process, so they can be attributed to ordinary food ingredients, so there is no need to put separate information on the packaging. The chemical composition of the frozen Atlantic and Pacific herring fillet, the amino acid composition of proteins, and the fatty acid composition of lipids were studied. The difference between Atlantic and Pacific herrings was detected, which consists in a significantly higher content of docosahexaenoic acid. The difference in the fractional composition of triacylglycerols for the Atlantic and Pacific herring was established. The microflora of SafePro B-2 biological product (Chr. Hansen GmbH), containing multiple strains of Lactobacillus sakei, and the viability of the culture in preserves fillings were studied. The experimental development of canned food with SafePro B-2 additives was carried out. Microbiological, organoleptic and biochemical indicators of the preserves quality during cold storage were studied. The influence of introduced culture on the dynamics of preserves curing period and their shelf life was established.
  • Kirje
    The influence of milk quality and composition on goat milk suitability for cheese production
    (2020) Marcinkoniene, L.; Ciprovica, I.
    The goat milk production sector is growing in Latvia, therefore detailed studies are required to examine goat milk suitability for cheese production. There is still not enough information about the chemical composition and quality of goat milk, and its connection with milk renneting properties. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of milk composition and quality on goat milk renneting properties. Fat, protein, lactose, urea content, somatic cell count and freezing point were measured by infrared spectroscopy. The curd firmness was analysed by Texture Analyser (Stable Micro Systems, UK). In total, 34 samples, including bulk milk samples (n = 3) were analysed. The analysed breeds included the Latvian Native (n = 9), Saanen (n = 14) and milking crosses (closer to Anglo Nubian) (n = 8). The samples were arranged according to the lactation, somatic cell count and breeds. Obtained fat content varied from 1.72 to 4.67%, and the protein content – from 2.93 to 4.57% in individual goat milk samples. The highest fat to protein ratio was established in the Saanen breed goat milk (0.96), but the lowest – in milking crosses’ milk (0.80). The highest somatic cell count was determined in the second lactation goat milk (1421 thous mL-1 ) and in milking crosses’ goat milk (1027 thous mL-1 ). The somatic cell count influences curd firmness in cheese, and the highest fat to protein ratio was established in the first group samples with lower somatic cell count.
  • Kirje
    Quality and safety problems of sports nutrition products
    (2020) Volf, E.; Simakova, I.; Eliseev, Yu.; Perkel, R.; Malyshev, E.; Zinin, A.
    The purpose of this work was to study the quality and safety of some sports nutrition products. The objects of study were sports nutrition products: protein bars of ‘ProteinBar’ (Russia) and ‘Bombbar’ (Russia); capsule forms of dietary supplements ω–3, ω–6, ω–9 firms ‘Sportline’ (Russia), ‘Multipower’ (Germany) and ‘Maxler’ (USA). According to the research results, the normalized safety indicators of the fat component of the studied products for sports nutrition (acid number and peroxide) are within acceptable values. The standardized safety indicators of the fat component do not fully reflect the safety requirements for the fat component of sports nutrition products, since there are no standards for the most important indicators of fat safety – the content of secondary oxidation products – copolymers insoluble in petroleum ether and epoxides. The results obtained in the course of the work showed that in almost all of the studied samples are content of epoxides (7.5–47.6 g -1 ) and secondary oxidation products – 1% or more.
  • Kirje
    Review article: Current research trends in fruit and vegetables wastes and by-products management-Scope and opportunities in the Estonian context
    (2020) Malenica, Dunja; Bhat, Rajeev; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Insitute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Siences
    Globally on an annual scale, considerable amounts of fruit and vegetables wastes (FVW) are generated in the agri-food industrial sector. Costs insured for safe disposal of FVW remains uneconomical and they can pose a serious environmental hazard if left untreated. However, FVW have high potential for reuse, recycle and recovery, which is an indication that there are productive, sustainable and affordable ways of reducing and tackling them at the industrial levels. Recent years have seen progressive innovative research on FVW management strategies, which has been developed with an idea of reducing wastes and fully exploiting its potential. Further, FVW represents a potential source of valuable compounds and bioactive ingredients. Today, there are many proposed innovative approaches for handling the FVW. These include reintroducing sub-standard fruit and vegetables (small sized or misshaped fruit and vegetable) in the market, reusing FVW for soil amendments, composting, or as an animal feed, and much more. In addition, the extracted bioactive compounds from FVW and by-products can find wide applications as a natural additive in food, cosmetics and/or in pharmaceutical applications. Currently, novel cost effective strategies have been developed for effective valorisation of agri-food wastes and by-products. The field of FVW management is still limited, thus leaving a wide gap for new ideas, novelty and applications of more efficient green techniques for complete utilization of agri-food wastes and by-products. Some of the interesting aspects on wastes and by-products management are discussed in relevance to Europe and in Estonia.
  • Kirje
    Radiation use efficiency by tomato transplants grown under extended photoperiod
    (2020) Rakutko, S.; Avotiņš, A.; Berzina, K.; Rakutko, E.; Alsina, I.
    The study focused on the effect of an extended photoperiod on the radiation use efficiency (RUE) by the tomato transplants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the pre–reproductive period. In two consecutive series of experiments, the photoperiod was 16 and 22 hours. The photon irradiance at the plant tops was maintained at low, medium and high levels: 100, 170 and 240 μmol m–2 s –1 , respectively. The plants were grown under two lighting systems with different light quality. The difference was7% higher blue flux share in Spectrum II. The use of an extended photoperiod, especially in combination with high irradiance level, resulted in the plant leaf chlorosis. When varying the radiation dose components, the deviation from the reciprocity law was recorded. By the analysis results, the chlorophyll degradation was a response to the extended photoperiod rather than the radiation dose. Without additional blue flux, under a regular photoperiod, RUE reduced by 8% at the high irradiance level. Under extended photoperiod, the shift from the low to high irradiance level reduced RUE by 20–37%, with bigger reduction values being observed at higher irradiance levels. Seven percent addition of blue flux made it possible to increase RUE by 5–8% at the same and lower irradiance levels and under the regular photoperiod. With the extended photoperiod under these conditions, RUE decreased by 8–21%. The study results verify a great influence of an extended photoperiod on RUE, while the degree of influence depends on other parameters of light environment – light quality and irradiance level.
  • Kirje
    Low–fat high–protein fermented milk product with oat extract as a nature stabilizer
    (2020) Morozova, O.; Ashikhmina, M.; Zabodalova, L.
    Nowadays, the use of plant components in terms of their pronounced functional properties is of high relevance. Oat extract contains gums, β–glucans, vitamins (A, B1, B5, B9, PP, H), minerals (Fe, I, K, Si, Mn, Cu, Mo, etc.) and essential amino acids. It has been proven that a long–term use of β–glucans showed the reduction of the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and the regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar. β glucans also have immunoprotective, anti–inflammatory, antimicrobial, prebiotic effects and improve intestinal motility. The aim of study was to develop the technology of low–fat high–protein fermented milk product with functional characteristics. Oat extract was used as a natural stabilizer and a source of β–glucans. Maceration technique was used for the extraction. The recommended extraction parameters were established and physicochemical characteristics of the extract were studied. The recommended doses of oat extract when introduced into milk and the optimal heat treatment conditions of the milk–oat mixture were determined. The influence of temperature on the gel–forming properties of oat extract was investigated. The effect of oat extract on rheological behavior, water–holding ability and shelf life of the finished product was studied. Regular consumption of lactic acid microorganisms has a positive effect on the digestive system and metabolism. Based on the organoleptic characteristics and physicochemical changes during the fermentation process in comparison with the control sample (without oat extract), the recommended starter culture combinations (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactococcus lactis subsp, Lactobacillus bulgaricus) were proposed.
  • Kirje
    Shelf life extension of minimally processed vegetables using combinations of bacterial bioprotection and modified atmosphere packaging
    (2020) Bazarnova, J.; Barsukova, N.; Eliseeva, S.; Gnilitskiy, V.; Shepiashvili, J.
    The objective of the work: to study the effect of combination of bacterial bioprotective cultures and modified atmosphere packaging for prolonging the refrigerated storage period of minimally processed vegetables. Sweet pepper, zucchini, eggplant, celery stalks were used for preparation of minimally processed vegetables. SafePro® bio-products from Chr. Hansen (Denmark) containing strains of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus сurvatus, Leuconostoc carnosum were used as bioconservatives. For packaging minimally processed vegetables, the bags made of flat multilayer PA/adhesive/PE films and composite PET/A1/PE film material were used. The bags were filled with gas mixtures including nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Storage of packaged minimally processed vegetables was carried out in a refrigerator at a temperature of (4 ± 2) °C for 16 days. The viability of cultures Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus curvatus, Leuconostoc carnosum in modified atmosphere packaging was studied. It was revealed that the gas mixture of 60% nitrogen and 40% carbon dioxide and the culture of Lactobacillus sakei contribute to the preservation of the quality of fresh-cutsweet pepper, eggplant and zucchini, and Leuconostoc carnosum is the more effective for celery storing. In the process of refrigerated storage for 14 days, the solids content in the experimental samples increased 1.3–2.1 times, the loss of organic substances was 26–50%, depending on the type of vegetables. The developed technology for the refrigeration preservation of minimally processed vegetables using bio-products treatment and in modified atmosphere packaging made it possible to increase the shelf life of fresh-cut vegetables by 2 times.
  • Kirje
    Development of metabolic engineering approaches to regulate the content of total phenolics, antiradical activity and organic acids in callus cultures of the highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)
    (2020) Ramata-Stunda, A.; Valkovska, V.; Borodušķis, M.; Livkiša, D.; Kaktiņa, E.; Silamiķele, B.; Borodušķe, A.; Pentjušs, A.; Rostoks, N.
    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is increasingly cultivated to produce high quality berries for consumption and potential applications in medicine, nutrition and as industrial precursors. Seasonal availability sets limitations on chemical compound isolation from cultivated plants. Biotechnological solutions, such as tissue cultures and metabolic engineering, can provide sufficient amounts of plant material with reasonably high metabolite levels, which may be adjusted by different strategies. Here, we describe our approach to modifying total phenolic content (TPC), antiradical activity (ARA) and amounts of selected organic acids in in vitro cultures of two varieties of V. corymbosum by varying the growth media. TPC, ARA and acid levels were determined in mature leaves of field-grown plants and in stable callus cultures derived from leaves of varieties ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’ grown on Murashige-Skoog (MS) and Woody plant (WP) media supplemented with varying concentrations and combinations of different plant growth hormones. TPC varied from 83 mg g -1 dry weight (DW) to 142 mg g -1 DW in leaves of ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’, respectively, and correlated with their ARA with ‘Duke’ at the lead. For callus cultures the highest ARA, as well as the highest TPC of 94 mg g -1 DW was observed in ‘Bluecrop’ grown on WP medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). High level of quinic acid was found in the mature leaves of all tested varieties, while callus cultures exhibited relative increase in amounts of malic, succinic and citric acids instead. Oxalic acid was found only in callus cultures.
  • Kirje
    Rowan powder based acidifying additive acidifying additive - an alternative to sourdough in the rye-wheat bread production
    (2020) Dubrovskaya, N.; Parakhina, O.; Lokachuk, M.; Savkina, O.; Kuznetsova, L.
    Rye is an important part of the cereal food culture in the Russia and Nordic, Baltic and Eastern European countries. Rye bread is often made of whole-grain flour using long-time sourdough. In Russia, rye bread began to be produced less and less often due to the complexity and duration of its technology. Therefore, the development of fast, natural and safe technologies is relevant. The aim of the research was to develop a nutritional acidifying additive based on plant materials (rowan powder, botanical species Sorbus aucuparia) for accelerated rye-wheat bread technology. With an increase in the new plant additive dosage above 3.5%, the dough lifting capacity deteriorated. The bread specific volume and the crumb compressibility deteriorated when additive dosage was higher than 3.5%. It all may be due to the acidity suppression of yeast activity in the dough. Taste and smell was also better in bread with new additive due to the rowan powder chemical composition. The optimum dosage of new additive rowan powder in rye-wheat bread formulation was 3.5% by weight of the flour. Usage of new additive with 0.1% of sodium diacetate allowed slowing down moulding. New acidifying with rowan powder allowed to create accelerated rye-wheat bread technology and to get bread with high consumer properties.
  • Kirje
    Biochemical responses of 5 buckwheat (Fagopirum esculentum Moench.) cultivars to seed treatment by Azospirillum brasilense
    (2020) Honchar, L.; Mazurenko, B.; Sonko, R.; Kyrpa-Nesmiian, T.; Kovalenko, R.; Kalenska, S.
    Cultivation condition have a large effect on efficiency of buckwheat. Drought, high temperatures and their fluctuations, salinity, oxygen deficit in the soil, ultraviolet radiation, and abnormal nutrient content in the soil are the most common reasons of decreasing productivity of plants. Suboptimal parameters of the cultivation technology can also cause abiotic stress. Plant can decrease its efficiency from 30% to 50% depend on stress conditions. Using bacterial cultures is one of the preventive approaches to overcoming the negative impact of stressors. Microorganisms produce biologically active substances that stimulate plant growth, increase their resistance to abiotic factors. They are growth regulators and long-acting anti-stressants as well. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is formed as a result of the oxidative degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fructans are polysaccharides that are derived from D-fructose residues found in higher plants, green algae and bacteria. Fructans are involved in the adaptation of plants to the action of abiotic stressors and are valuable nutrients. The effect of Azospirillum brasilense pre-sowing treatment of buckwheat seeds on physiological and biochemical processes of MDA and fructan content was researched. Seed treatment with Azospirillun brasilense reduced the content of MDA in Ukrayinka and Syn 3/02. Sofia and Olga had a low level of MDA, but seed treatment increase it. Seed treatment increased the efficiency of photosynthesis (Fv / Fm) in Syn 3/02 from 0.58 to 0.72; in other varieties this effect was negligible. All cultivars have a strong relation between MDA and fructan content, that shows their participation in responses on cultivation conditions. Efficiency of photosynthesis in flowering–seed formation stage (BBCH 65–75) was close to maximum in field condition(0.70 ± 0.05) and seed treatment can increase it.
  • Kirje
    The usage of a binder system for frozen berries in the manufacture of confectionery
    (2020) Kremenevskaya, M.; Аret, V.; Tambulatova, E.; Sosnina, O.; Shkotova, T.; Kuprina, E.; Makeeva, I.; Manuylov, A.; Kipchatova, M.; Anikina, A.
    The aim of the research was to create binding systems for confectionery using gelling agents. The possibility of using partially hydrolyzed liquid egg white (egg hydrolyzate) in the binding system of gelling agents (egg hydrolyzate - agar (EG-A), egg hydrolyzate - starch (EG-S)) was determined to obtain the required mechanical characteristics when creating coatings, ornaments or fillers in confectionery with whole berries or pieces of fruit. In this regard, a technology has been developed for the hydrolysis of liquid egg white in the presence of an acidic reagent. The best rheological characteristics of the gelling agent from egg white were obtained under the following hydrolysis conditions: egg white : 1% HCl ratio = 1:2, process temperature - 66°C, duration - 40 minutes, the pH of the egg hydrolyzate was 6.53, the amount of dry solids was 11.78%. The newly created systems with agar (E406, Germany), chemically modified food starch (E1442, Germany) and hydrolyzed egg white (egg hydrolyzate) allow to adjust the properties of the coating for quick-frozen berries used in semi-finished confectionaries or cakes. It is established that the coating for quick-frozen berries, which includes a system consisting of 1% E406 and 0.5% egg hydrolyzate, should be carried out in 2 stages. In the first stage, a 10-minute exposure of the coating, which has a tensile strength of 580 g cm-2 , allows to create a strong capsule around the berry, which prevents the processes of destruction from proceeding. The second stage is necessary to obtain a uniform surface coating of the semi-finished mix from the berries. In this case, the tensile strength of the coating should be 480 g cm-2 . The system created from the E1442 and egg hydrolyzate gelling agents was also used in 2 stages when making cakes, which were subsequently baked at 180 °C. The content of the binding system in the coating applied to the test substrate was 6.9–7.7%, the effective viscosity of the coating was 120–180 Pa s. The content of the binding system in the coating of the surface of the berries in the second stage was 5.2–6.3% with effective viscosity values of 50–90 Pa s. Semi-finished berry products and ready-made baked cakes, produced with developed binding systems, can be stored at -8 °C for 10 to 12 days. After refrigerated storage, the separated moisture was not observed in the test samples. The absence of the phenomenon of syneresis with the indicated proportions of the introduction of gelling agents in coating systems has been established.