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2018, Vol. 16, No. 2

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  • Kirje
    Management of Brazilian hardwood species (Jatoba and Garapa) wood waste biomass utilization for energy production purposes
    (2018) Chiteculo, V.; Brunerová, A.; Surový, P.; Brožek, M.
    In the Federative Republic of Brazil, Jatoba ( Hymenaea courbaril ) and Garapa ( Apuleia leiocarpa ) trees are intensively harvested . The yield of one log is approximately 45 – 55%, which indicates a great amount of produced wood waste biomass.Present research monitored the suitability of wood waste biomass from Jatoba and Garapa trees for bio – briquette for solid biofuel production. The research was focused on chemical parameters, and energ y potential of such biomass kinds. Jatoba wood waste biomass was used for the production of bio – briquette fuel and its final mechanical quality was investigated by determination of their mechanical quality indicators. Results of chemical analysis (in wet b asis) exhibited great level of ash content in case of both species ( Jatoba – 0.31%, Garapa – 3.02%), as well as high level of energy potential; net calorific value equal to 18.92 MJ kg – 1 for Jatoba and to 18.39 5 MJ kg – 1 for Garapa. Analysis of elementary composition proved following levels of oxygen content: J atoba – 41.10%, Garapa – 39.97 %. Mechanical analysis proved bio – briquette samples volume density ρ equal to 896.34 kg m – 3 which indicated quality bio – briquette fuel , while the level of rupture force R F occurred at a lower level – 47.05 N mm – 1 . Most important quality indicator, the mechanical durability DU, unfortunately, occurred at a lower level; DU = 77.6% compared to the minimal level of bio – briquette fuels intended for commercial sales which must be > 90%. Overall analysis proved materials suitability for energy generation purpose with certain limitations which can improve by changing production parameters of briquetting.
  • Kirje
    Red clover drying coefficient dependences on air velocity at constant drying temperature
    (2018) Aboltins, A.; Tomsu, J.; Kic, P.
    The clover is widely used as feed of animals and preservation of fodder is an important problem. This paper informs about the experimental and theoretical investigations of red clover ( Trifolium pratense ) drying by force d convection. This research is focused on verification of influence of different air velocities on the drying process of red clover in thin layer in mild temperatures (22 °C ) and rather high relative humidity of air (70 % ). The initial moisture content of clover was determined by gravimetric method using the hot air drying in the electric oven. Special device for convection drying with air flow passing through material from the bottom through supporting trays with a sieve (dimensions of mesh 3 x 4 mm) by co nstant temperature was used for drying when the air velocity 0.7 m s - 1 , 1.0 m s - 1 , 1.2 m s - 1 and 2.0 m s - 1 . These results was compared with drying by free convection. Changes of clover samples were determined from the measured values of weight using the gr avimetric method. The function of drying coefficient K(t) is determined (using thin layer theory) and theoretical results are compared with experimental results. Using experimental results were determined relationships between air velocity and parameters i ncluded in function of drying coefficient. This allows theoretically to predict the drying process depending on the air velocity.
  • Kirje
    The role of field beans in nutrition of Boer goat
    (2018) Aplocina, E.
    A study on the effective using of field beans to Boer mother goats feeding was carried out on a farm whose main activity is the production of goat meat. Since the Boer goat breed is still very rare in Latvia, there is a lack of experience in the feeding of meat goat. Goat productivity was analyzed according to the birth weight of goat kids a nd kids live weight at 50 days, as well as the average live weight gain of kids per day up to 50 days old. For control group goats a relatively high energy shortage (14% of the daily requirement) and protein deficiency (29% of the daily requirement) were o bserved in feed ratio. Adding fodder beans and maize into the feed, it is possible to optimize feed ratio for energy and protein supply. Experimental activities had shown that by the inclusion of field beans and maize in feed ratio of goat's mothers, the a verage increase in live weight of kids up to 50 days old was by 58.2% higher (P < 0.05) than that of kids in which goats' mothers received only oats as concentrated feed. By the optimization of feed ratio, it is possible to achieve a higher milk productivity of goat mothers and hence larger live weight gain for kids, which reduces the feed c osts by up to 9% for 1kg of live weight. By optimizing the breeding and feeding of mother goats and kids, it is possible to achieve greater animal fast - growing, hence, more efficient and cost - effective management.
  • Kirje
    Influence of inoculation and phosphorus regimes on symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphorus use efficiency of Algerian cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)) landraces
    (2018) Benlahrech, S.; Kac, G.; Teffahi, M.; Ounane, S.M.
    To study the genotypic variation of cowpeas on plant growth and phosphorus (P) uptake which is a function of different P regimes in the soil rhizosphere , 6 landraces of cowpea commonly found in northern Algeria ( NE4, NE10, NE11, NKT5, NKT7, NKB7 ) and 4 landraces from Sahara in southern Algeria (NAG4, NAG5, NAT2 and ND3) were studied during 2013 – 2014 in greenhouse. They were inoculated with Mesorhizobium sp. (S1), Bradyrhizobium sp. (S2) and co – inoculation (S1 – S2) under three P treatments: no P supply (P0), soluble P (PP) and insoluble P (TCP). Only varieties commonly found in northern Algeria nodulated with soluble P (PP) and inoculation containing Mesorhizobium sp . (S1). As a result of the symbiosis, the use of S1 has significantly increased shoot dry weight by 22%, total P content by 20% and P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation by 18% compared to no inoculation (T). The landraces from the northern of Algeria expressed a higher growth than those from Sahara in the south of Algeria, especially three of them (NE4, NE10 and NE11) who showed a high performance under all P regimes. We suggest that these three landraces may be useful for improving symbiotic nitrogen fixation in cowpeas when growth is limited by low – P soils and that they could contribute to sustainable farming systems through reduction of farm er’s dependence on fertilizers.
  • Kirje
    Chemical composition of agromass ash and its influence on ash melting characteristics
    (2018) Čepauskienė, D.; Pedišius, N.; Milčius, D.
    The increasing demand for biofuels leads to a growing need for agromass, such as herbaceous plants and agricultural waste. However, agromass contains high quanitites of alkali metals, mainly potassium and sodium, which limits agromass usage in thermoconversion processes. Alkali metals react with other ash forming elements which leads to ash related problems such as agglomeration, fouling and slagging during agromass burning. In this study, chemical composition and melting behaviour of ashes form ed at 550 ° C are investigated. Three herbaceous plants (reed canary grass, hemp, orchard grass), four types of agricultural waste (straws of rye, wheat, buckwheat and canola) and two types of woody biomass (birch, spruce) are selected. Ash melting behaviou r, composition and bulk structure are determined using a high temperature furnace with a video camera, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission – spectrometry and X – ray diffraction technique, respectively . Ash melting behaviour of selected agromass types s hows that the hemp ash has the highest shrinkage starting temperature which reaches 1 , 079 °C. This is due to the high content of calcium and low content of potassium and sodium in hemp ash. T hree main components calcium carbonate, potassium sulfate and pot assium chloride have been identified in ashes after agromass and woody biomass are heat – treated at temperature of 550 °C.
  • Kirje
    Energy potential of densified biomass from maize straw in form of pellets and briquettes
    (2018) Križan, M.; Krištof, K.; Angelovič, M.; Jobbágy, J.; Urbanovičová, O.
    The aim of the study was the evaluation and comparison of energy potential of briquettes and pellets produced from the maize straw and woody biomass based on various diameters of pellets. By experimental measurements a calorific value and ash content was obser ved. Calorific value was measured by laboratory calorimeter IKA C 6000 (IKA® Works, Inc., USA) and laboratory combustion chamber Lindberg/Blue M (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., USA). Individual calorific values and ash content was observed and subsequentl y confronted to obtain differences with replication. The analysis showed that calorific value of pellets with diameter 6 mm ranged from 16.99 MJ kg - 1 to 17.80 MJ kg - 1 . Calorific value of pellets with 8 mm diameter ranged from 16.63 MJ kg - 1 to 17.20 MJ kg - 1 . However, compared calorific value of briquettes ranged from 14.99 MJ kg - 1 to 15.66 MJ kg - 1 . Further analysis showed that ash content of samples varied as well and it’s even affected by diameter of pellets. While ash content of pellets with diameter 6 mm was observed as 4.9% of total volume in case of pellets with 8 mm it was observed at value 5.5%. Briquettes produced from maize straw have ash content at value 5.4%. In contrary, ash content of woody biomass was significantly higher, 11% of volume, specifi cally. At the basis of observed parameters it can be concluded that maize straw densified in form of briquettes and pellets have a great energy potential which is comparable and competitive with currently used materials for production of briquettes and pel lets.
  • Kirje
    Low temperature BMP tests using fish waste from invasive Round goby of the Baltic Sea
    (2018) Gruduls, A.; Balina, K.; Ivanovs, K.; Romagnoli, F.
    Round goby (Neogobius melanostomus ) is an invasive fish species in the Baltic Sea. While meat can be used for human consumption, fish processing residues are considered as a waste. Within circular economy and bio - economy perspectives fish waste could be used as a valuable feedstock for biogas prod uction. However, the research is mostly focused on evaluating biogas yield at mesophilic conditions (i.e. 37 °C ). In this study the impact of low temperature on Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests has been investigated. Round goby’s processing leftov ers - heads, intestines and skin/bone mixture were tested in codigestion with sewage sludge. Anaerobic digestion (AD) was carried out in 100 mL batch tests at low temperature 23 °C and 37 °C conditions, over an incubation period of 31 days. The results sho w that AD at low temperature occurs twice as slowly as under 37 °C conditions. However, after 31 days the BMP values for 23 °C samples were only 2% lower than for high temperature samples. Heads and skins showed similar BMP values reaching on average 502 L CH 4 kg VS - 1 and 556 L CH 4 kg VS - 1 respectively. BMP for fish intestines was higher, reaching on average 870 L CH 4 kg VS - 1 . Average BMP for mixes of fish heads, skins, intestines and bones was 660 L CH 4 kg VS - 1 . Acquired BMPs were further compared with the theoretical BMPs from Buswell's formula. Research results suggests that anaerobic digestion of fish waste under low temperature conditions could be feasible as the process still efficiently occurs, in fact ope ning a new opportunity to explore the overall sustainability of technologies based on these conversion processes.
  • Kirje
    The influence of dietary inclusion of peas, faba bean and lupin as a replacement for soybean meal on pig performance and carcass traits
    (2018) Degola, L.; Jonkus, D.
    The effect of peas, faba bean and lupin seed inclusion in growing and finishing pig diets was evaluated. The control diet included soybean meal at 15%, but in the trial groups diets peas were 15 or 28%, faba bean 20 or 25%, lupin seed 12 or 15%, completely replacing soybean meal. Diets formulated to be isoenergetic for ME and with the same crude protein content. The faba bean and, especially, lupin seed meal inclusion in pig diets for growing per iod significantly reduced ADG P = 0.02 and 0.01 ), and G : F was also signi fi cantly influ enced ( P = 0.02 ) for pigs in lupin seed meal groups. There were no effects on finisher pigs average daily gain, inclusion peas or faba bean, daily gain were, respectively 892 ± 19 and 915 ± 11, 867 ± 12 and 828 ± 11, except lupin seed meal ( P = 0.04 ) inclu sion. There were no significantly effects on carcass quality and to pork chemical content, but pigs fed the diets with peas 28% and faba bean 25% had less of lean meat content, greater backfat thickness and internal fat than other groups which have a simil ar results. The muscle chemical content show that inclusi o n of pulses increased the total fat content in pork. In conclusion, results from this experiment suggest that pigs fed peas and faba bean have equal or slightly lower growth performance and carcass traits than pigs fed soybean meal, except lupin seed meal.
  • Kirje
    Diagnosis of air quality in broilers production facilities in hot climates
    (2018) Sousa, F.C.; Tinôco, I.F.F.; Barbari, M.; Baptista, F.; Souza, C.F.; Saraz, A. O.; Coelho, D.J.R.; Silva, A.L.
    The objective of this study was to evaluate air quality of industrial farms of broilers production, located at Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais , Brazil. The environmental air quality was evaluated during the last rearing week, between 35 and 42 days of life of broilers. Facilities with beds constituted by two types of substrates were evaluated: coffee husks (6 reuse cycles) and shavings (4 reuse cycles). A total of 30 facilities (3 per each of the 10 reuse cycles) were investigated. Air quality was diagnosed by determining air temperature and relative humidity and by ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations. Air temperature and relative humidity were not affected by reuse cycles in coffee husks bed, but these variables were affected by reuse cycles in shavings bed. Ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations increased linearly according to the reuse cycles for both types of bed. The maximum concentr ations of ammonia and carbon dioxide were 25 ppm and 1,348 ppm in facilities with bedding of coffee husks and 10 ppm and 1,075 ppm in facilities with bedding of shavings, respectively. Air quality of facilities using coffee husk bed tends to be worse when compared to facilities using shavings bed due to the higher values of ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations, as observed in this study. In conclusion, regardless bedding type, increases in reuse cycles tend to decrease air quality inside the facility, since a linear increasing in ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations can be observed in relation to the number of bed reuse cycles.
  • Kirje
    Productive performance of broilers at the final stage of breeding submitted to different levels of metabolizable energy in different thermal environments
    (2018) Oliveira, K.P.; Ferreira, C.F.S.; Tinoco, I.F.F.; Andrade, R.R.; Barbari, M.; Cruz, V.M.F.; Baptista, F.J.F.; Vieira, M.F.A.; Conti, L.; Rossi, G.
    The Brazilian poultry industry is an activity in constant development due to the high indices of productive efficiency. The accelerated evolution of poultry production has allowed to obtain early and very efficient broilers able to convert different foods into animal protein. However, due to this intensive breeding system, a series of metabolic and management problems appeared, with emphasis on thermal stress. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological responses of broiler chickens in the final stage of breeding (21 to 42 days of life), submitted to two thermal conditions, one representative of the thermoneutrality situation (T1) and one giving a situation of cyclic stress by heat (T2). For each experimental thermal condition, the birds were submitted to different levels of metabolizable energy of 3,050, 3,125, 3,200, 3,275 kcal kg - 1 . At 28, 35 and 42 days, the birds and the feed leftovers were weighed to measure the performance variables: CR (feed intake), GP (weight gain) and CA (feed conversion), viability of the rearing (Vb), productive efficiency index (PEI). As conclusions, the GP was 13.6% higher for the birds maintained at the thermoneutrality situation T1. Th e PEI was 32.5% higher for the birds maintained in T1 condition, when compared to those kept in T2. However, both in thermoneutral and in heat stress conditions, the increase in the level of metabolizable energy in the diet did not influence the performanc e and the productive efficiency index of broiler chickens aged between 21 and 42 days of age.
  • Kirje
    Effect of thermal environment on body temperature of early-stage laying hens
    (2018) Andrade, R.R.; Tinôco, I.F.F.; Souza, C.F.; Oliveira, K.P.; Barbari, M.; Cruz, V.M.F.; Baptista, F.J.F.; Vilela, M.O.; Conti, L.; Rossi, G.
    The thermal comfort condition of early - stage laying hens can be verified by means of physiological variations. The mean surface temperature and cloacal temperature are important parameters to d emonstrate the effect of the thermal environment on the birds. The objective of the present study was to correlate homeostasis and stress with physiological responses (mean surface temperature and cloacal temperature) of lightweight laying hens of the Lohm ann LSL Lite line aged from one to forty - two days when submitted to different thermal environments. A total of 864 birds with the same age, origin and uniform body weight were randomly distributed in four climatic chambers. The characterization of the dif ferent environments was as follows: thermal comfort temperature (33.0 – 19.0 °C ), two cold stress levels (28.0 – 17.0 °C and 25.0 – 17.0 °C ) and one level of heat stress (38.0 °C – 22.0 °C ). The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design in the s ubdivided plots scheme, with four treatments in the plots and the evaluations (days) in the subplots. The means were compared using the Tukey test, adopting the 5% probability level. The birds maintained the physiological responses, based on cloacal and su rface temperatures, within the normal range for all evaluated treatments during the period between 01 and 42 days of life. The surface temperature of the birds varied as a function of the air temperature of each breeding environment, with lower surface temperatures for mild cold and moderate cold treatments.
  • Kirje
    Improvement of monitoring of cattle in outdoor enclosure using IQRF technology
    (2018) Hartová, V.; Hart, J.
    Monitoring of cattle in the outdoor enclosure is a very important issue. Currently, the increasingly stealing cows and other cattle from the pasture. For businesses that manage it, this is a very lossy business. For thieves, the electric fences, which are currently the most widespread, are easily surmountly. And the owner does not have a chance early on to learn the fact theft of catt le. For this reason, a system for monitoring cattle on outdoor enclosure using IQRF (intelligent local network topology ) technology has been developed. We have been dealing with this issue for a long time and the biggest problem was the monitoring of only the inner part of the enclosure. Previously, there was an overlap of monitoring in the area beyond grazing. This problem has been solved by using a shielded base for mounting IQRF receivers.
  • Kirje
    Yeast as a production platform in biorefineries: conversion of agricultural residues into value-added products
    (2018) Cristobal-Sarramian, A.; Atzmüller, D.
    In contrast to a petroleum - based economy, which relies on the unlimited presence of fossi l fuels, a biobased economy utilizes a broad spectrum of natural crops and biomass as raw substrates for the production of valuable materials. Biorefineries represent a promising approach for the co - production of bioenergy (biofuels, biogas) and value - adde d products (biochemicals, biomaterials, food). Within Europe, wheat straw represents the major crop residue and has been extensively considered as a promising feedstock in the biorefining process. Firstly, wheat straw is hydrolysed to obtain a sugar soluti on that is further converted into the desired product in a biocatalytic manner. Microbial fermentation is the core component of biorefineries and yeast, as for instance Candida guilliermondii , is an effective production platform for both, biofuels and bioc hemicals. One limiting aspect in using yeast in the biorefinery approach is the presence of inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, such as acetic acid or furfural, influencing cellular growth and diverse metabolic processes. In order to overcome this problem, several genetic engineering approaches are used to increase yeast resistance towards these inhibitors and to enhance the overall production. In this paper, we summarized: 1) the pretreatment technologies for wheat straw bioconversion; 2) the Candi da guilliermondii genetic engineering technologies and their biotechnological potential. In conclusion, biorefineries are a crucial factor in the transition towards a biobased and circular economy, and the implementation of yeast into this system offers a great opportunity to develop innovative strategies for a sustainable production in an environmentally friendly and economically feasible manner.
  • Kirje
    Implementation of practical solutions to improve buffalo breeding development in rural areas of South Iraq
    (2018) Rossi, G.; Conti, L.; Al-Fartosi, K.; Barbari, M.
    Buffalo breeding is widely spread in rural areas of southern Iraq, especially in marshlands. In the Provinces of Basr ah, Dhi Qar and Maysan the buffalo represents the main source for survival of local people in marshlands. The paper shows the situation in these areas, remarking the main critical points for buffalo breeding development. A survey in 24 buffalo farms was ca rried out by the Department of University of Firenze to verify the situation of buffalo farming in southern Iraq (years 2014 – 2016). In particular the study shows problems related to the shortage of food for animals, to the lack of suitable structures and infrastructures, to the poor herd management by farmers. In the paper the main critical points, which compromise the success of the breeding, are pointed out, with particular reference to animal welfare, animal health and labour (care of animals and risks for workers). Solutions to mitigate the scarce results are indicated. In particular some practical interventions carried out during a project funded by Italian Agency for Cooperation and Development are presented and discussed. Such interventions refer mai nly to the application of feeding racks, systems for a safe capture of the animals, plants and equipment for heat protection. As conclusion, also in difficult and poor areas like Iraqi marshes, a correct design and a right application of simple constructiv e and plant solutions, with little employment of technological resources, coupled with a good training of farmers, can give a contribution to solve problems in buffalo breeding.
  • Kirje
    Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality
    (2018) Litke, L.; Gaile, Z.; Ruža, A.
    Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is the most common cereal, which is grown in Latvia. Nowadays, farmers are trying to get high grain yields in line with food quality, at the same time trying to minimize production cos ts and to use environmentally friendly technologies. The objective of this experiment was to clarify the impact of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality under two soil tillage systems and after two forecrops. Trials were conducted at the Research and Study farm ‘Peterlauki’ of Latvia University of Agriculture (56 ° 30.658 ’ N and 23 ° 41.580 ’ E). Researched factors were (1) crop rotation (wheat/wheat and oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ssp. oleifera )/wheat), (2) soil tillage (traditional soil tillage with mould - board ploughing at a depth of 22 – 24 cm and reduced soil tillage with disc harrowing at a depth below 10 cm ), (3) nitrogen fertilizer rate (altogether eight rates: N0 or control, N60, N90, N120(90+30), N15 0 (90+60) , N180 (90+60+30) , N210 (90+70+50) , and N240 (120+60+60)), and (4) conditions of the growing seasons 2014/2015, 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The results indicate that winter wheat yield has been significantly affected by soil tillage, nitrogen fertilizer rate ( p < 0.001) and forecrop ( p < 0.05). Three - year research confirmed significant yield increase until the nitrogen fertilizer rate N180. Significantly higher average grain yield was obtained under traditional soil tillage. Nitrogen fertilizer affected significantly all tested yield quality indicators ( p < 0.001) . Increase of nitrogen fertilizer rate secured significant increase of winter wheat grain quality indices, except starch content, after both forecrops and in both soil tillage variants. Values of yield quality indicators increased significantly enhancing N - rate from N150 up to N 210.
  • Kirje
    The indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonisation potential in potato roots is affected by agricultural treatments
    (2018) Loit, Kaire; Soonvald, Liina; Kukk, M.; Astover, Alar; Runno-Paurson, Eve; Kaart, Tanel; Öpik, Maarja; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Chair of Plant Health; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Chair of Soil Science; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Chair of Crop Science and Plant Biology; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Chair of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology
    There is an urgent need to develop novel approaches to enhance sustainable agriculture while not reducing cr op yields. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi establish symbiotic associations with most crop plants improving plant performance and soil health. This study investigated the extent of colonisation of potato roots by indigenous AM fungi in the arable soil under conventional and organic farming systems. Potato roots had greater AM fungal colonisation levels under organic than conventional farming, though in general, root colonisation levels were extremely low in both farming systems . Pota to root AM fungal colonisation was lower with higher soil P content and higher with higher annual C input. Trap plant root AM fungal colonisation was considerably higher than in field potato roots and showed that soil mycorrhizal inoculum potential was hig her in organic than in conventional farming. Thus, the positive impact of manure application in organic fields to the potato AM fungal colonisation can be explained by previous higher total annual C fresh organic matter input and lower soil P content under treatment. Furthermore, the natural AM fungal abundance in the soil was sufficient to colonise trap plant roots, suggesting a low mycorrhizal dependence of the studied potato cultivar.
  • Kirje
    Evaluation of break-even point and gross margin economic risks in producing winter oilseed rape
    (2018) Mimra, M.; Kavka, M.; Markytán, P.
    The economic result of growing winter oilseed rape is influenced by a number of variables, such as natural influences, input prices and the used technology. One of the ways to improve the business’s prof itability is to use the experience and knowledge provided by consulting companies. This paper analyses two data series covering the period of 5 to 10 years regarding specific selected key parameters for companies using the counselling services of the Union of Oilseeds Growers and Processors in Prague (UOGP) and some other companies that make no use of these services (OTHERS). For the selected key parameters, the risk analysis of reaching the gross margin and the break - even point was conducted with the aid of the Monte Carlo stochastic simulation method. The results of the calculations show that the companies using UOGP consulting achieve on average, at the same level of risk, a gross margin higher by 30% and their break - even point is lower by 11%. Taking adv antage of the knowledge and services provided by a consulting company has positive economic benefits, and it increases the competitiveness of companies.
  • Kirje
    Comparison of two sowing systems for CTF using commercially available machinery
    (2018) Macák, M.; Rataj, V.; Barát, M.; Galambošová, J.
    The crop establishment belongs to crucial technology operations. The quality of sowing is the basis for obtaining efficiency of production. Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a technology which prevents excessive soil compaction and minimizes compacted area to the smallest possible area of perman ent traffic lanes (PTL). There were two sowing systems compared, namely row and band sowing when growing winter barley. Sowing parameters as well as all other field operations were identical for both compared systems. Measurements were conducted at an expe rimental field on non - compacted and traffic lane areas where CTF system was introduced in 2009, with 64% of compacted and 36% of non - compacted soil. Six crop parameters were analysed. Generally, it can be concluded that the band sowing performed better in yield (by 9.3% in non - compacted area; by 3.8 % in traffic lane), ear number (by 5.2% in non - compacted area; by 10.1% in traffic lane) and grain number (by 6.3% in non - compacted area; by 8.1% in traffic lane) as well as crop height (by 6.6% in non - compacted area; and by 2.4% in traffic lane). The only parameter performing worse was TGW with decrease of 6.6% in non - compacted area and decrease 2.8% in traffic lane for band system. Differences in number of grain per ear were negligible.
  • Kirje
    Poultry farming solutions for a sustainable development of marshlands areas of South Iraq
    (2018) Rossi, G.; Conti, L.; Bambi, G.; Monti, M.; Barbari, M.
    The Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems of University of Florence carried out cooperation projects in the South Iraq, funded by Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Coop eration, focused on the development of rural areas. All the proposed interventions were designed taking into account some key points, such as the development of sustainable farming systems, the protection of the environment, the empowerment of women role. Among the main activities, a particular importance is given to the simple solutions for poultry breeding that represents an important economic resource for many farmers and a source of food for a large segment of the population. Therefore the main aim of t he project was to define new building solutions to apply in the area of marshlands. A mobile poultry shelter was designed and built to meet the demand for meat and eggs from a typical rural family. This shelter was designed to be used for extensive breedin g, with animals free to graze outside during the day. A suitable self - building methodology was applied to obtain results from farmers without specific skills for wood construction thanks to which they learn the appropriate way to build poultry shelters. As conclusion, poultry breeding can be spread in the area of marshlands using the simple self - building structures presented in the study.
  • Kirje
    Combustible in selected biofuels
    (2018) Vitázek, I.; Tulík, J.; Klúčik, J.
    The aim of the research was to determine the moisture, combustible and ash content in selected biofuels, in dependence on temperature by the means of gravimetric method. For this purpose, the furnace Nabertherm L9/11/SW/P330 was used. Analyzed samples cons isted of crushed biomass which is used in small heat sources (e.g. spruce wood, cherry wood, apple wood, black locust wood) with bark and without additives. Biomass for larger heat sources (woodchips cuttings from coniferous trees), sawdust mix (plum, cher ry, walnut, apricot, apple) and pellets (90% spruce and 10% fir) were also analyzed. The results are processed graphically and enable to characterize the tested fuels. The highest content of combustible was found in spruce wood sample without bark (99.889% ), the lowest content of combustible indicated cuttings from coniferous trees (88.402%). Gravimetric experiments were supplemented by DSC measurement of selected samples on calorimeter Toledo DSC822e. The graphic courses of reactions are provided up to 500 °C.