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2018, Vol. 29, No. 1

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  • Kirje
    Scab infection management on apple leaves in Western Balkans
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Rexhepi, Edmond; Paçe, Harallamb; Vrapi, Hekuran; Hasani, Arbenita; Kokthi, Elena
    The disease of apple scab caused by the pathogen of Venturia inaequalis is a nonstop issue to the apple cultivators. The infection requires prompt and persistent treatment so as to control the infection. Today there are a few integrated pest management products (IPM) and programs for the treatment of apple scab with various application time. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal application time frame and consolidating it with few treatment programs for dealing with the apple scab disease. For this purpose, were made eight treatment programs comprising several chemical products and were realized in three distinctive treatment periods within the same season. The research is performed amid three years 2015–2017 in one experimental orchard. The formation of the experiment is two factorial randomized block with four replications. The disease infection level was evaluated on 2400 leaves from 98 apple trees. Based on analysed disease index (DI) the treatment programs and periods were compared with each other to conclude with the best combination of fungicides and application period for scab disease management on infected leaves.
  • Kirje
    Biostimulaatori ja fungitsiidiga puhtimise mõju suvinisu arengule ja saagivõimele
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Sooväli, Pille; Kangor, Tiia; Koppel, Mati
    In the years 2013–2014, the Estonian Crop Research Institute conducted a field trial in order to investigate the effect of seed treatment with seaweed based biostimulants and fungicide on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seed treatments of the varieties 'Specifik' and 'Uffo' were used with (fludioxonil + cyproconazole) and without fungicide (biostimulants Raykat Start, Fertigrain Start) and mixture (fludioxonil + cyproconazole + Fertigrain Start), and untreated seed as the control were evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the development, growth and yield potential of spring wheat under the action of biostimu-lants, with the presence and absence of treatment of seed with fungicide. In the laboratory, we measured: 1) the length of roots and shoots of germinated seed, 2) total number and total weight of grains per ear, 3) one kernel weight per ear. In the field, we evaluated: 4) plant height, 5) the number of generative tillers that were counted in one linear meter at physiological maturity. Results showed that the application of biostimu-lants and fungicide for seed treatment influence the wheat early development and growth of radicle. They can increase the root length however the biostimulants and fungicide can have an opposite effect on germination of wheat seed. They can decrease the length of the first true leaf emerged from coleoptile. We noticed that seed treatment with Raykat Start increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) the plant height of variety 'Specifik' compared to untreated. There was tendency that by using both biostimu-lants for seed treatment of variety 'Specifik' more generative tillers emer-ged, but this was not significant compared with untreated. The results suggested that solely the seed treatment with biostimulants and fungicides, there was no effect on total grain number and total grain weight per ear of wheat varieties.
  • Kirje
    Ülevaade: Eesti mullastiku seisundi uurimused, mullaseire suunad ja võimalused seire tõhustamiseks
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Eiber, Laura; Eesti Maaülikool. Põllumajandus- ja keskkonnainstituut. Mullateaduse õppetool
    In the introductory part a short retrospect to the soil survey proceeded in Estonia since fifties of previous century is given. As a result of this survey the large scale (1:10,000) digitized soil map for the whole Estonian territory with soil contours (soil mapping units) related soil species databases was compiled. For valuable legacy data of this survey, which was conducted by the state financed institution Estonian Agri-project, are soil varieties models (totally 50 models of arable and 27 models of forest soils) with statistically elaborated soils' morphometric and physical-chemical properties in relation to all presented in soil profile (in pedon) diagnostic horizons. The main deliberation of the work is connected with methodology of soil monitoring and with the problem – how to integrate the received from soil monitoring data with capacious databases received during soil survey and scientific researches. In the study the following topics are discussed in connection with soil moni-toring: methodological problems, used laboratory analyses, possibilities for intensification of soil monitoring and discovered shortcomings in fulfilling of monitoring programme. The most developed direction of Estonian soil monitoring is the monitoring of soils' pollution (contamination) and degradation. Starting from the need of revision and improvement of state soil monitoring programme it is recommended to start monitoring (1) of the processes proceeded in the humus covers (pro humus forms) of natural soils and (2) of the soil type-specific biological diversity of key (or model) soils. It is emphasised the urgent need of realizing such essential tasks as (1) to arrange the integration of newly received monitoring results into the existing soil databases, (2) to do the critical review of published works on soil monitoring with compiling their systematic reference list, and (3) to compile the registers about soil monitoring areas location and about key soil species.
  • Kirje
    Comparative assessment of selected heavy metal load in three tilapiine species inhabiting Osinmo Reservoir, Southwestern, Nigeria
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Olofinko, Ayomide Omolara; Adewole, Henry Adefisayo; Olaleye, Victor Folorunso
    The levels of selected heavy metal in the water and fillets of Tilapia zillii Gervais, Sarotherodon galilaeus Trewavas and Oreochromis niloticus Lineaus in Osinmo Reservoir were assessed and compared with established regulatory limits of WHO and FEPA with a view to providing information on the water and the fish fillet heavy metal load as well as the fillet bio-accumulative potential as a likely indicator for human fish consumption safety. Water samples and fish specimens were collected monthly from Osinmo Reservoir, Ejigbo, Southwestern, Nigeria for a period of 6 months. The descaled-dried fish fillet and water samples were digested and analysed for lead, chromium, iron, zinc and cadmium using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (A.A.S.). The data obtained were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS 21. The results showed that zinc concentration which was the highest in the water samples and ranged between 144 μg l-1 and 288 μg l-1 was also the highest in the fillets of all the cichlid species. However, the concentrations were within the mandatory regulatory limits. The result of the study also revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) in heavy metal loads of the fish fillets between the cichlid fish species from Osinmo Reservoir. Irrespective of the month of sampling, the heavy metal levels in fish fillets samples were found to increase in the order: O. niloticus > T. zillii > S. galilaeus. However, the levels of lead (11.00–26.00 μg l-1 and 15.00–31.00 μgL-1) and cadmium (6.33–13.00 μg l-1 and 2.33–12.33 μg l-1) which was the least in both water and fish fillet respectively, were above the recommended regulatory acceptable limit of WHO and FEPA. The study concluded that the elevated levels of lead and cadmium in the water and the fish fillet samples assayed indicated that the two elements negatively impacted the fish fillet quality, thereby raising human health consumption safety issues.
  • Kirje
    Päriliku skreipiresistentsuse dünaamika Eesti lambatõugudel
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Sild, Erkki; Värv, Sirje; Viinalass, Haldja; Eesti Maaülikool. Veterinaarmeditsiini ja loomakasvatuse instituut. Tõuaretuse ja biotehnoloogia õppetool
    A total of 2,411 sheep from the Estonian Whitehead (N = 1301) and Estonian Blackhead (N = 1110) breeds were genotyped for markers of scrapie risk in the period 2005–2017. Sanger sequencing was used to identify nucleotide substitutions in the PRNP gene at codons 136, 141, 154 and 171 to determine corresponding amino acids in prion protein. Sheep were divided into 13 groups according to their birth year to assess the temporal changes on the genetic profile of the studied population. Seven different alleles and 16 different genotypes (12 for Estonian Blackhead and 16 for Estonian Whitehead) were identified. In the birth year group 2007 (two years after the introduction of a scrapie eradication programme) a statistically significant change in the allele ALRR frequencies was found. The selective breeding for allele ALRR (the scrapie resistant marker) increased in frequency from 0.40 to 0.70 during the period 2006–2017. Significant declines in allele frequencies ALRQ (0.40–0.20) and ALRH (0.13–0.03) were found. The frequency of the most susceptible to scrapie allele (VLRQ) was low (< 0.03), and the decrease of the frequency during the program was insignificant. Both sheep breeds showed statistically significant changes in allele, genotype and risk group frequencies between the birth year groups before the introduction of the scrapie eradication programme and at its end. The effect on genetic profile in terms of changed allele frequencies was statistically more significant in the Estonian Whitehead sheep (p < 0.001) than in the Estonian Blackhead sheep (p < 0.05).
  • Kirje
    Soil bulk density and phytosanitary conditions at potato field
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Tartlan, Luule; Nugis, Edvin
    The aim of this paper is to present the microorganisms and their activities and soil bulk density. It is a fact that both have a great impact on soil fertility and its health status. Among the microorganisms in soil, the bacteria and fungi are the most important ones for potato cultivation; the bacteria living on the plant roots serve to uphold the nutrient intake of plants. Our previous research has shown that Paenibacillus Polymyxa Rizobacter fostered a better uptake of phosphorus and reduced drought stress. The potato experiments were conducted in a pH range of 5.4 to 5.9, so it was environmentally favourable for the development of soil fungi. It is well known that moulds have a welldeveloped filiform and a high spore production. We have found that if the genus Alternaria, Helminthosporium, Fusarium, etc., has been left on the surface of the skin of potatoes then it will affect the disease. In 2010, the mould count remained within the range from 0.83·105 to 2.25·105. Also according to our assessments, an economic loss related to unfavourable soil bulk density for potato will occur if it is more than 1.25 ±0.07 Mg m-3. At the same time, it should be noted that for the Estonian soil conditions, the accepted limit of penetration resistance is 1.0 MPa.
  • Kirje
    The effect of vermicompost on the growth and quality of cress (Lepidium sativum)
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Olle, Margit
    Vermicompost is the excreta of earthworm, which are capable of improving soil health and nutrient status. Vermiculture is a process by which all types of biodegradable wastes such as farm wastes, kitchen wastes, market wastes, bio-wastes of agro based industries, livestock wastes etc. are converted while passing through the worm-gut to nutrient rich vermicompost. The aim was to find suitable substrate to grow cress. 1. 30% vermicompost, peat, sand and dolomite stone. 2. 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, perlite. 3. 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, light gravel. 4. Growth substrate bought from a shop in Estonia (seller didn't allow to usage the name of the brand). 5. 20% vermicompost and organic matter rich claysoil. Results: Most elongated cress plants were in treatment 4, and the shortest ones in treatment 5. At the same time the longest roots were measured from plants in treatment 2, but shortest in treatment 5. The thickest stem was measured by treatment 1 and the thinnest stem was by treatment 5. The chemical analyses are showing that the smallest content of nitrogen was by treatment 3 and the highest by treatment 4. The smallest content of phosphorus was by treatment 5 and the highest by treatment 4. The smallest content of potassium was by treatment 4 and the highest by treatment 5. The smallest content of calcium was by treatment 4 and the highest by treatment 3. The smallest content of magnesium was by treatment 4 and the highest by treatment 5. Conclusion: out of the results of this experiment we could conclude that the best substrate to grow cress is substrate number 3: 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, light gravel.
  • Kirje
    Sõnniku mõjust maheviljeluslikult majandatavas külvikorras
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Järvan, Malle
    Organic agriculture is a production system which relies on ecological processes. In the organic farming systems, it is important to improve soil fertility and to protect soil physical condition for its healthy functioning. The benefit from organically cultivated crops is strongly related to the maintenance of soil fertility based to a great extent on the soil organic matter content. Farmyard manure is one of the more valuable organic fertilizers maintaining soil fertility in the systems of alternative agriculture. To investigate the influence of manure from several aspects, a field experiment was carried out on a sandy loam Luvisol. A five-year crop rotation (potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) → oat (Avena sativa L.) → spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) → red clover (Trifolium pretense L.)→ winter rye (Secale cereale L.) was organically managed without manure (Org I) and with manure (Org II) treatments. 8.3 t ha-1 of organic dry matter as straw-based cattle farmyard manure was ploughed into the soil for potato grown the next year. During a seven-year experimental period, no significant (p < 0.05) changes were found in the soil organic carbon content. For the Org I treatment, a significant decrease in potassium, copper and boron contents in the soil occurred. The application of manure counterbalanced the need for potassium, and significantly increased the contents of phosphorus and magnesium in the soil. Manure stimulated microbial life in the soil: the communities of cellulose-decomposing bacteria, nitrifying bacteria and total bacteria increased significantly. Under the influence of manure, the yields of potato, oat and barley increased by 52, 23 and 10%, respectively; this allowed us to gain an extra 30 GJ metabolizable energy during the crop rotation. In organic farming systems, the regular application of solid farmyard manure is recommendable for the maintaining and improving the status of available nutrients and microbial activities in the soil, and for the economic profitability.