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2020, Vol. 18, No. 4

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  • Kirje
    Case study of non-linear PV inverter devices attached to the LV distribution network
    (2020) Vinnal, Toomas; Puusepp, Hardi; Shabbir, Noman; Kütt, Lauri; Iqbal, Muhammed Naveed
    Every year, more and more solar power plants are connected to the grid, producing electricity in an environmentally sustainable manner. The increasing number of photovoltaic (PV) installations and their integration into the low voltage (LV) distribution network (DN) is having an impact in terms of power quality (PQ). For example, the voltage in the DN can sustain high distortion values. The impact of a PV installation on the LV network is analysed in this research. The field measurements were carried out over a 3-week period at a solar power plant with a total output power of 160 kW in an Estonian rural municipality. The measurement results provide the opportunity to look more closely at the effect of the solar power plant on the supply voltage of the LV DN. Parameters such as voltage variation within a one-minute period, the asymmetry of the voltages and the total harmonic distortion of the voltages are discussed here.
  • Kirje
    Development and examination of high-performance fluidised bed vibration drier for processing food production waste
    (2020) Kaletnik, H.; Sevostianov, I.; Bulgakov, V.; Holovach, I.; Melnik, V.; Ihnatiev, Ye.; Olt, Jüri; Estonian University of Life Sciences. Institute of Technology
    Drying and processing wet particulate food production waste, such as distillery dreg, brewer's grains, beet pulp, spent coffee and barley slurry etc. for their further use as cattle fodder or fuel is an important and topical problem, which needs effective solutions. As a solution of the problem, the authors have developed improved equipment and a fluidised bed vibration drier, which ensures reaching the required output of the work process and final moisture content in the waste at a minimum power and material intensity and features the combination of the high feasibility with the high reliability of design. In order to validate the improved drying work process together with the optimum parameters of the vibration drier, theoretical investigations based on the mathematical model of the process developed by the authors have been carried out. The process of the vibration drier’s frame oscillating together with the waste has been examined, which has resulted in the generation of the differential equation that analytically describes the said process. The work process under consideration has been researched into from the thermophysical point of view using the specific initial data typical for the specific food producer. The research has resulted in obtaining the following design and process parameters of the vibration drier, in particular, for its heating pipes: diameter rt = 0.1 m; length lt = 5 m; number nt = 20, heat-transfer factor Kp = 30 and the final temperature of the dried food production waste to2 = 80 °C. The listed parameters provide for reaching the required final moisture content in the dried food production waste. Also, new relations have been generated for determining the principal process parameters of the improved drier (productive capacity, heat consumption, mass of heat carrier, waste conveyance speed, sizes and masses of the drier’s actuating elements). The obtained relations can be applied in the further theoretical and experimental research on the drier as well as the development of standard methods for its design and calculation.
  • Kirje
    Pancakes for a healthy diet: low-carb, prebiotic, gluten-free
    (2020) Kiprushkina, E.I.; Golovinskaia, O.V.; Ovsyuk, E.A.; Baklanova, V.V.; Alekseeva, L.A.; Tulina, A.K.; Beloded, V.R.; Shestopalova, I.A.
    The work aims to develop pancake recipes corresponding to the standards of a healthy diet by replacing traditional components with ingredients containing nutritional functional properties. Corn and rice flour are gluten-free and can be used to design gluten-free pancakes. Barley flour contains beta-glucans, a large amount of fiber, reduces the glycemic index of products, is useful not only for a healthy diet but also for people suffering from diabetes and obesity. Rye flour is low in calories, as millet flour contains dietary fiber, vitamins, and lowers cholesterol. Dietary fiber and inulin contribute to the regulation of intestinal microbiota. The results show the possibility of 100% replacement of wheat flour with other types of flour in the production of low-carb, prebiotic, and gluten-free pancakes. The water absorption capacity of flour, dough viscosity, humidity, texture of products, and sensory analysis of finished products were investigated. Replacing wheat flour with alternative types of flour can improve the nutritional value of products, increase the content of dietary fiber, and reduce the calorie content of pancakes.
  • Kirje
    Biological properties and fruit quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars from Romanian assortment
    (2020) Corneanu, M.; Iurea, E.; Sîrbu, S.
    The paper presents a 4-year study of the valuable characteristics in 15 autochthonous and cosmopolitan sweet cherry cultivars grown in northeastern Romania, named Moldavia area. Tree’s vigour, resistance to frost and anthracnosis, the fructification phenophases, epidermis colour, organoleptic and quality traits of fruits and also fruit’s and stone’s size were evaluated. Weak tree vigour was find at ‘Tereza’, ‘Ştefan’ and ‘Golia’ cultivars. From end of flowering to harvesting time were determined 39–40 days for the early cultivars (‘Scorospelka’, ‘Cătălina’), while for the late cultivars as ‘Marina’ and ‘George’ were identified 71–83 days. Eight cultivars have presented fruits’ resistance to cracking with low values between 1.3–9.3% fruits cracked. Fruit’s weight have varied between 5.9 g (‘Scorospelka’) and 9.2 g (‘Andreiaş’), while fruit’s equatorial diameter have varied between 22.4 mm (‘George’) and 25.8 mm (‘Paulică’). The cultivars with the largest fruit’s size were ‘Andreiaş’, ‘Bucium’, ‘Ştefan’, ‘Paulică’, ‘Golia’, ‘Van’ and ‘Stella’. The values of the soluble solids content range between 14.4°Brix (‘Scorospelka’) to 20.0°Brix (‘Bucium’), the titratable acidity has been between 0.39 (‘Andreiaş’) and 0.87 (‘Cătălina’) mg malic acid 100-1 mL juice and the total content of polyphenols has recorded values between 314.93–584.95 mg GAE 100-1 mL of fruit juice. The studied sweet cherry cultivars showed high variability but some got remarked through earliness, low vigour of the tree, large fruit’s size or fruit’s resistance to cracking.
  • Kirje
    The impact of drainage reclamation on the components of agricultural landscapes of small rivers
    (2020) Zubarev, V.A.; Mazhaysky, Yu.A.; Guseva, T.M.
    The traditional use of agricultural landscapes of small rivers is agricultural arable land, which requires a number of reclamations and agricultural work. Land drainage has a significant impact on the environment, but these activities were carried out almost without taking into account the requirements of environmental protection. Heavy metals have one of the most significant negative effects on the components of floodplain-channel complexes (floodplain soil, surface water, bottom sediments, macrophytes, hydrobionts). Studies have shown that drainage reclamation leads to a decrease in the content of humus in floodplain soil, collector-drainage runoff, changing the chemical composition of natural water, affects the processes of transitaccumulation of heavy metals from sediments to water. The integrated chemical and ecological assessment of the influence of drainage reclamation on the state of the floodplain soil – water-bottom sediments system showed a critical situation of pollution of agricultural landscapes of water basins with heavy metals. Drainage melioration also negatively affects the state of hydrobionts-aquatic vegetation and fish, heavy metals accumulate in their organisms, which leads to disruption of aquatic flora and fauna life processes.
  • Kirje
    Morphological variability of phenotypic traits in of oregano samples
    (2020) Myagkikh, E.F.; Babanina, S.S.; Pashtetsky, V.S.; Karpukhin, M.Yu.
    The purpose of the research was to study the morphological variability of collection samples of oregano of the Crimean Peninsula. The experiments were carried out in 2016–2018 in the Foothill Zone of Crimea. The plant material consisted of 41 samples of origanum collected on the Crimean Peninsula territory. The degree of identification reliability of oregano collection samples by morphological traits was checked. The construction of relationship dendrograms was carried out by the Ward’s method based on the Manhattan distances. It was found that qualitative traits (coloration of corolla, leaf, bract, stalk and male fertility) showed themselves more consistently than quantitative ones. It was recommended to use the most polymorphic traits (entropy, H > 1.50 bits) for reliable identification of oregano samples from the Crimean peninsula: coloration of bract, stem, leaf and corolla, as well as the number of shoots and mass fraction of essential oil. The structure of the association differed by the years of study when constructing dendrograms (r = 0.58).Nevertheless, a fairly clear correspondence of the clusters of different years’ clusters to each other was established (78% of the samples). The established correspondence indicates the reliability of the genotypes combination into separate groups (clusters) and their similar reaction to environmental conditions. The most interesting combinations of samples for further breeding work were identified – these are clusters 2 and 5 (according to the 2018 data). In 42.7% of genotypes from the second cluster, the mass fraction of essential oil was at the level of 0.25–0.55% of the absolute dry mass (4–6 points). The samples from the second cluster could be used as high-oil sources, whereas samples from fifth cluster – as sources of high productivity of ‘green’ raw materials (up to 1,200 g plant-1 ). It is advisable to select parental forms from these two clusters for hybridization. The grouping of origanum samples used in the work divides the samples quite accurately separated them not only on qualitative, but also on economically valuable traits.
  • Kirje
    Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity
    (2020) Tryhub, O.V.; Bahan, А.V.; Shakaliy, S.M.; Barat, Yu.M.; Yurchenko, S.О.
    To determine the ecological plasticity of crop varieties, there are a number of methods that are based on the analysis of the variability of the trait by contrasting years under the conditions. The stability and plasticity of the studied traits of varieties are due to the ability of genetic mechanisms of plants to minimize the consequences of the negative impact of the environment, that is, to resist them. The researches on establishing regularities of manifestation of plasticity, stability and homeostaticity of buckwheat varieties of different ecological and geographical origin were carried out in the conditions of the central part of Ukraine during the period of 2016–2018. The low adaptability of modern buckwheat varieties is a determining factor for low production yields of potentially high-yielding varieties in the sharply contrasting (climatic factors) cultivation conditions. The level of yield (as a complex characteristic) and its main component, the individual productivity of the plant have been determined as the differentiative indicators of modern varieties and new promising breeding material consisting of 35 samples from 5 countries of the world. The analysis of research data has identified a group of varieties (SYN 3/02, Sofiia, Selianochka, Slobozhanka, Yelena, Roksolana, Populiatsiia 7/07, P-330, P-455, P-620, Ametist, Feniks, Ilishevskaia, Batyr and Arno), which have a value as a highly adaptable varietal material for the cultivation conditions and have an increased selective value according to abiotic adaptability indicators and can be used to create a more adaptable material as a potentially more productive as well as more plastic and stable resource for selection.
  • Kirje
    Evaluation of various legume species and varieties grown in Latvia as a raw material of plant-based protein products
    (2020) Sterna, V.; Zute, S.; Jansone, I.; Ence, E.; Strausa, E.
    Nutrition value of legumes has been traditionally attributed to its high protein content. Protein content of legumes is variable dependent on different species and varieties, and highly affected by environmental factors. Usually protein quality is characterized by its owns amino acid profile in nutritional point of view. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the protein contents and amino acid profiles of pea (Pisum sativum L), faba beans (Vicia faba L) and soya (Glycine max L) grown in Latvia and evaluate their potential for food production. Overall results of a five-year analysis (2013–2017) showed that the protein content of peas, faba beans and soybean ranged from 20.0 to 26.1%, 26.6 to 30.5% and 35.9 to 40.9%, respectively. The corresponding values of total crude fat ranged from 0.8 to 1.2%, 0.7–1.3% and 16.6 to 19.3%, respectively. Results of study showed that the protein content of peas, faba beans and soybean was not differed by growing system (p < 0.05). The percentage of essential amino acids for pea, faba bean and soya were 34 to 38%, 57 to 59% and 62 to 64% respectively. The composition of pea flakes was preserved protein content of raw material. The pea flakes has high content of lysine of 10.1 g kg-1 , phenylalanine+thyrosine of 11.6 g kg-1 and the sum of essential amino acids of 66.4 g kg-1 . In nutritional point of view, pea flakes could be product with high-quality proten composition.
  • Kirje
    Advantages of electric resistance method for baking bread and flour confectionery products of functional purpose
    (2020) Kulishov, B.; Kulishova, K.; Rudometova, N.; Fedorov, A.; Novoselov, A.
    In this paper we studied the effect of the baking method on the preservation of betacarotene in two types of products: pan wheat bread and sponge cake. Five sources of betacarotene were used in the study, three of which are commercially available samples, and the two others are experimental samples of supramolecular complexes of beta-carotene with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins in powder form (molecular ratio 1: 1). Bread and sponge cake were baked by convective and electric resistance methods. The values of temperature and current flowing through the dough were monitored during electric resistance baking. The beta-carotene content was measured in the dough after kneading, in the cake batter after mixing and in the finished products after baking and cooling. The beta-carotene content was evaluated by spectrophotometry after extraction. The control samples of bread and sponge cake were baked without adding beta-carotene. Different sources of beta-carotene exhibited varying stability in bread and sponge cake. Bread samples baked by the electric resistance method with addition of supramolecular complexes had minimum losses of beta-carotene. Electric resistance baking ensured lower losses of beta-carotene in bread and sponge cake samples.
  • Kirje
    Boron content and some quality features of potato tubers under the conditions of using sulphur fertilizer
    (2020) Klikocka, H.
    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of sulphur application on the content and uptake of boron (B) with the yield of potato tubers. A field experiment with potato was conducted in 2009–2011, with S applied in different forms (elemental and K2SO4) and at different rates (0, 25 and 50 kg ha-1 ). The content of B in tubers depended significantly on each fertilizer S rate and form. The uptake of boron with dry mass of tubers was equally advantageous in the application of each rate and form with sulphur fertilization compared to controls. No significant effect of weather on the content and uptake of boron tubers was found. The tuber yield and starch content were significantly increased by both the fertilizer S rate and form. A positive correlation was found between B content and B uptake of the yield of tubers. B uptake positively correlated with tuber yield and with a yield of DM and with the yield of starch. Sulphur applied as sulphate increased the content of SO4-S in the soil. Application of elemental S at a rate of 50 kg ha-1 decreased the pH of the soil. Soil content of total C depended on each rate and form of S applied. No correlation was found between B content and B uptake between the analysed soil parameters. The content of total C in the soil was positively correlated with tuber yield. The pH of soil negatively correlated with tuber yield.
  • Kirje
    Effect of seed inoculation and foliar fertilizing on structure of soybean yield and yield structure in Western Polissya of Ukraine
    (2020) Novytska, N.; Gadzovskiy, G.; Mazurenko, B.; Kalenska, S.; Svistunova, I.; Martynov, O.
    Growing soybeans requires adjustment of micronutrient nutrition on poorly fertile soils. Foliar fertilization can overcome the deficiency of micronutrients in plants in the most important period. Three factorial field experiment to study foliar fertilization with complex micronutrients, seed inoculation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in two soybean varieties (Kassidy and ES Mentor) was conducted. Foliar fertilization with Quantum oil and WUXAL Oilseed significantly increased certain elements in soybean yield structure. Fertilizer WUXAL Oilseed with a higher concentration of Mo, Mn and B more effectively increased the number of pods and seeds from the plant and formed a higher yield in soybeans. Foliar fertilization with WUXAL Oilseed and Quantum oil increased seed yield to 3.00 t ha-1 and 2.94 t ha-1 , respectively in regard to variant without fertilizing, where yield was 2.71 t ha-1 . Variety Kassidy had greater number of pods and seeds, seed weight in comparison to foliar fertilizing ES Mentor. Seed inoculation gaves a stable increase in yield under different foliar fertilizations in varieties Kassidy and ES Mentor.
  • Kirje
    The effectiveness of biopreparations in soft wheat cultivation and the quality assessment of the grain by the digital x-ray imaging
    (2020) Kolesnikov, L.E.; Novikova, I.I.; Popova, E.V.; Priyatkin, N.S.; Zuev, E.V.; Kolesnikova, Yu.R.; Solodyannikov, M.D.
    The main trend of modern crop production is the expansion of the use of plant protection solutions and technologies, that ensure not only effective management of the number of populations of harmful organisms, but also the production of environmentally safe agricultural products with minimal anthropogenic impact on agro-ecosystems. One of our priorities is to develop new environmentally sound polyfunctional biopreparations, that combine useful properties of microbial strains such as phytopathogen antagonists and chitosan compositions that increase disease resistance. The introscopic analysis of the seed material quality realized with the non–destructive express techniques application was used for evaluation the effectiveness of the compositions' complex influence on plants. The research studies the effectiveness of the influence of Bacillus subtilis strains and chitosan compositions, including their combined effect, on soft wheat productivity and its damage by disease agents. Data on the quality assessment of the grain using microfocus x-ray radiography and gas-discharge visualization (electrophotography) are also provided. The complex of more than 20 structural elements of wheat productivity was analysed during the research. Assessment of the plant damage intensity according to the standard criterion – the disease development, and additional phytopathological indicators was carried out. The evaluation of the grains’ introscopic characteristics was carried out by the microfocus x-ray radiography techniques combined with the digital x-ray image analysis. It is shown that the biopreparation complexes, containing B. subtilis strains and Chitosan, have a combined biological activity manifested in the optimization of wheat plants’ physiological state, increasing productivity, diseases resistance.
  • Kirje
    Experience and prospects for application of by-products of processing of fruits in the production of animal feed
    (2020) Plotnikov, I.A.; Mukhamedyanov, M.M.; Domsky, I.A.; Bespyatykh, O.Yu.; Makarova, N.A.
    The purpose of the research was to study the feasibility of using by-products of the industrial processing of fruits for the production of full-feed mixed fodders with the possibility of using these mixed feeds as the only feed in the diets of herbivorous fur animals (nutria, brown muskrat, steppe marmot). Studies of chemical composition and nutrition have shown that nontraditional ingredients can be included in the composition of feed. At their expense, you can save up to 30% of leguminous feed, 9% - cake, 1% - meat and bone meal. This allowed us to reduce the cost of the studied batches of feed by 18–21%. Experiments have shown the effectiveness of using such feed in the diets of herbivorous fur-bearing animals. The inclusion of compound feed in the diet allowed to increase the number of commercial offspring per female muskrat by 0.8 heads, compared to the control group. The safety of young animals until the moment of depositing puppies from their mothers was approximately equal in both groups. Young muskrats of the experimental groups had 5.5–6.8% higher values of average daily increments, compared to control analogues. A similar pattern is established in male nutria. Marmots of the experimental group from the very beginning of the experiment were outnumbered by control animals. In July, these differences reached statistically significant values: 4,085 ± 71 g vs. 3,736 ± 73 g (p < 0.01). Thus, the marmots of the experimental group recovered faster after winter hibernation.
  • Kirje
    Environmental sustainability fruit quality and production in mycorrhizal tomato plants without P fertilizing
    (2020) Palumbo, G.; Carfagna, S.; Stoleru, V.; Torino, V.; Romano, P.M.; Letizia, F.; Di Martino, C.
    The influence of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Funelliformis mosseae, on fruit quality, production and environmental sustainability were evaluated in field-tomato plants grown exposed to P-limited soil 5 µg g -1 soil (basal-soil) with nitrate fertilization (50 µg g -1 soil), after greenhouse germination and fungus colonization. After 60 days sowing (DAS), when the percentage of mycorrhizal root length (% RLC) raised at about 50%, the plants were transplanted in open field. During the experiment, the mycorrhization has affected a lot of physiological aspects like vegetative and reproductive growth, improving them and ended the fruiting with a major fruit production that was 50% higher than not mycorrhizal (NM) plants. The ripening process of the fruits was also followed by testing sugars content and ß-Amylase activity in fruits of NM and mycorrhizal (M) plants fruits. At 140 DAS, in the harvesting fruits stage, fruits of M plants showed significantly higher mineral nutrient sugars and organic nitrogen compounds as amino acids and protein, compared to fruits from NM plants. In particular, GLU-GLN-ASP and ASN raised about 35% more than fruits from NM plants, improving nutritional aspect and flavor of the product. THR-ILEU-LEU-VAL and LYS, essential amino acids in man nutrition, increased around 25% more than fruits from NM plants, too. In this contest, lycopene, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and glutathione (GS) and reduced form (GSH) were also tested in ripe fruits. The overall results suggest that tomato roots colonization by mycorrhizal fungus Funelliformis mosseae affects host plant nutritional status, modifying reproductive behavior, fruits production and nutritional quality.
  • Kirje
    Mapping performance of irrigation schemes in Turkey
    (2020) Arslan, F.; Değirmenci, H.; Kartal, S.; Alcon, F.
    Water is a crucial resource and approximately 70% usage of it in the agriculture sector in Turkey. Water user associations are in charge of irrigation water management. The core aim of this study is to assess water user associations have command area more than 1,000 ha (WUAs) within the districts of DSI (State Hydraulic Works) and to create spatial maps to show the distribution of the performance indicators used constantly by researchers especially around Mediterranean countries during the period from 2011 to 2015. Frequency and panel data analysis are used to figure out the relationship among performance indicators and attributes such as water diversion type, management type, source of water and district no. Panel data analysis was applied to examine statistical assessment over time. As a result, current performance indicators show that excessive irrigation water used due to low technology and management problem. Performance indicators show high differences among districts due to climate, water resources, and crop pattern. Moreover, low irrigation efficiency can be increased with a transition to pressurized irrigation systems, so more are can be irrigated with less water.
  • Kirje
    Seasonal variation of macro- and micro- nutrients in leaves of fig (Ficus carica L.) under Mediterranean conditions
    (2020) Bougiouklis, J.N.; Karachaliou, Z.; Tsakos, J.; Kalkanis, P.; Michalakos, A.; Moustakas, N.
    Leaves of ‘Smyrna’ fig (Ficus carica L.), variety ‘Smyrneiki’, were collected at four stages of the annual growth cycle, namely (1) at flowering, (2) during fruit development, (3) at fruit maturity and (4) after fruit harvest, during two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) and the leaf macro-(N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and micro-(Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, B) nutrient concentrations were determined. Mean concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg ranged between 14.4–28.6, 0.5–1.7, 2–31.2, 22–80.3 and 2.1–6.7 g kg-1 (on a dry weight basis-d.w.), respectively, while concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and B, ranged between 84–280, 11–70, 2–86, 40–206, and 18–39 mg kg-1 d.w., respectively. The mean leaf concentration of N decreased significantly at each successive growth stage, whereas those of P, K, Fe and Zn, also decreased progressively, but not always to a statistically significant level between each stage. In contrast, the mean leaf concentration of Ca increased significantly throughout the season, while the concentrations of Mg and Cu also increased, but not to a statistically significant level at each stage. The Mn concentration of fig leaves decreased significantly at fruit maturity, then increased significantly after fruit harvest. Overall, the nutrient concentration of fig leaves varies throughout the period from flowering to fruit harvest, suggesting that trees may need different amounts of nutrients depending on the developmental stage. The seasonal variation of the nutrient concentration in fig leaves confirmed the need for reference values for each phenological stage for leaf analysis interpretation and for developing an efficient fertilization program.
  • Kirje
    Changes in soil properties and possibilities of reducing environmental risks due to the application of biological activators in conditions of very heavy soils
    (2020) Šařec, P.; Látal, O.; Novák, P.; Holátko, J.; Novák, V.; Dokulilová, T.; Brtnický, M.
    This study aims at verifying the effect of farmyard manure (FYM) and of selected activators (Z'fix and NeoSol) on changes of soil properties. Their application should lead to improvement of soil physical properties and of organic matter fixation, to reduction of environmental risks, e.g. of tillage energy requirements. Experimental variants (0.7 ha each) were as follows: I (FYM with Z'fix); II (FYM with Z'fix + NeoSol); III (FYM); IV (Control NPK only). FYM was applied at rates: 50 t ha-1 (2014); 30 t ha-1 (2016). Additional NPK fertilizer (I–IV) was applied according to annual crop nutrient normative. The agent Z'fix was used as an activator of FYM biological transformation (5.5 kg t -1 ). The agent NeoSol was used as soil activator (200 kg ha-1 ; annually). In order to verify the effect, cone index, bulk density, tillage implement draft and chemical soil components (Humus, C/N ration and Ntot) were measured annually. Compared to the control, the application of FYM combined with the mentioned agents (I–III) increased Ntot more than two times. Moreover, it decreased (I–III) bulk density by 8.7%. Tillage implement draft decreased by 3% after the application of FYM with Z’fix (I, II). The study confirmed that FYM application combined with utilization of activators positively influenced soil fertility and helped to reduce environmental risks.
  • Kirje
    Simulating the effect of tillage practices on the yield production of wheat and barley under dryland condition
    (2020) El-Sadek, A.N.; Abd EL-Ghany, F.I.; Shaalan, A.M.
    In arid and semiarid regions, soil tillage practices have major effects on soil water dynamics. In this study, we compared the effects of Zero tillage (ZT) and Conventional tillage (CT) on the grain yield of rainfed barley and wheat at three locations i.e. Barrani, El-Neguilla and Matrouh in the north western coast of Egypt. We also tested the performance of the DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer). In the first season of 2017/2018, only barley plants in Barrani location were able to grow and produce yield due to insufficient rain. Results showed that ZT produced significantly higher grain yield (almost 200%) for barley as compared to the CT treatment. In the second season of 2018/2019, conventional tillage produced higher yields as compared to the zero tillage treatment over the three studied locations and for the two crops. The DSSAT model successfully simulated the grain yield, total biomass and harvest index with an excellent agreement between simulated and observed data with NSE values of 0.868 and 0.800 for grain yield and total biomass respectively and a satisfactory agreement with NSE of 0.431 in case of harvest index. Tillage had a noticeable impact on grain yield of barley and wheat and the DSSAT successfully simulated the effects of the tillage treatments.
  • Kirje
    Production of cellulose nanostructures from Chilean bamboo, Chusquea quila
    (2020) Oliveira, P.E.; Petit-Breuilh, X.; Rojas, O.J.; Gacitúa, W.
    In Chile, bamboo bushes of Chusquea quila genus (or popularly known as ‘quila’) have brought economic and ecological problems for decades in the south-central part of this country. On the other hand, this plant species was studied as a raw material for the production of nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) and nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC), presenting an opportunity for sustainable and environmentally friendly management, positioning Chile as a Latin American country at the forefront of studies with nanotechnological approaches. The methodology applied to generate these nanostructures contemplated hydrolysis with sulfuric acid and oxalic acid, in addition to an intermediate stage of microfluidization to generate nanofibrillated cellulose. The products obtained showed morphological and topographic homogeneity in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. The diameter values of the particles ranged from 10 to 20 nanometers for the CNCs. Through Fourier transformed spectrophotometry (FTIR) it was found that the processes of microfluidization and acid hydrolysis did not affect the molecular shape of the nanostructures and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was important to determine crystallinity index (IC), presenting values higher than 80%.
  • Kirje
    Effect of partial substitution of bulk urea by nanoparticle urea fertilizer on productivity and nutritive value of teosinte varieties
    (2020) Salama, H.S.A.; Badry, H.H.
    The integration of nanoparticle urea (NPU) in the fertilization scheme of forage crops with high nutrients’ requirements, like teosinte (Zea mexicana L.), would help avoiding the environmental implications associated with the application of high rates of conventional bulk urea (BU), while not depriving the plant from its benefits. The effects of fertilization treatments composed of different percentages of NPU and/or BU, on yield, agronomic characteristics and quality attributes of three cuts of two teosinte local varieties were investigated in a split-split plot design during summers of 2018 and 2019. In general, the application of 50% NPU + 50% BU was similar to 100% BU in the production of highest amount of fresh yield, with the highest values for plant height and stem diameter, in addition to appreciable nutritive value, in terms of high crude protein (66.10 g kg-1 ) and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC), and low acid-detergent fiber (284.09 g kg-1 ) and crude fat (36.97 g kg-1 ) contents. While the 1st cut was characterized by the highest plant height (58.74 cm in average), stem diameter (7.64 mm in average) and leaf area (130.07 m2 in average), the 3rd cut produced the highest amount of fresh yield (39.68 t ha-1 in average). Variations in quality measures among the three cuts were almost non-significant. Variations in yield and quality were detected between the two tested local varieties. In conclusion, the combined application of 50% NPU with 50% BU is recommended for the production of fodder teosinte in similar environments.