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2018, Vol. 29, No. 2

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  • Kirje
    Kaera lisasöötmise mõju rohusöödarikaste ratsioonide kasutamisel uttede toitumusele, jõudlusele ning vere glükoosi ja β-hüdroksübutüraadi sisaldusele mahefarmides
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Piirsalu, Peep; Kaart, Tanel; Samarütel, Jaak; Tölp, Silvi; Ilves, Aire; Jaakson, Hanno; Nutt, Irje; Eesti Maaülikool. Veterinaarmeditsiini ja loomakasvatuse instituut. Söötmisteaduse õppetool; Eesti Maaülikool. Veterinaarmeditsiini ja loomakasvatuse instituut. Tõuaretuse ja biotehnoloogia õppetool
    The aim of this study was to estimate the feeding strategies of pregnant and lactating ewes fed only silage/hay or supplemented with concentrates (oat) on the ewe body condition score (BCS), production of ewes (lambs born per ewe lambed (LB), lambs born alive per ewe lambed (LBA), lambs born dead per ewe lambed (LBD), lamb birth weight (LBW), lamb 100 day weight (L100DW)) and ewe blood glycose and β-hydroxy-butyrate (BHB) concentrations. The Estonian White Face and Texel ewes (107 ewes) were divided into two similar groups: the experimental group (59 ewes) and control group (48 ewes). For 45–60 days before lambing (from 90th–105th day of gestation) the experimental ewes were fed in addition to forage feeds (silage, hay or pasture grass) 0.22 kg of organic oat per day (totally 10 kg in gestation period) and 0.3 kg of oat during suckling period (totally 13.5 kg per ewe). The control group of ewes were fed only with forage-based rations (silage, hay, pasture grass) without cereals. Ewe BCS was assessed before mating, on 130–140 day of pregnancy, after lambing (following 7th–10th day), during the 2nd suckling months (45–60 suckling day) and at weaning of lambs by two observers during the whole study. It was concluded that additional feeding of minimal amount of oats increased the ewes BCS in the experimental group at 130–140 day of pregnancy (BCS was respectively 3.36 and 2.97, p < 0.001) and on the 45–60th suckling day (BCS respectively 2.84 and 2.52, p < 0.001) compared with control ewes, but did not affect BCS of ewes at the end of the experiment (at weaning). Production traits (LBA, LBW, L100DW) nor ewes blood glycose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations at the 130–140 days of pregnancy and 7–10 days after lambing were not affected by supplementation of oat to ewes' diet.
  • Kirje
    Ülevaade: kahkjad ehk näivleetunud mullad Eestimaa muldkattes
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Kõlli, Tarmo; Eesti Maaülikool. Põllumajandus ja keskkonnainstituut. Mullateaduse õppetool
    In actual review the main morphological properties of the Pseudopodzolic soils and the principles of their dividing into soil species (identified by soil genesis) and varieties (divided on the basis of soil texture) are treated. The compiling of actual review is caused by the fact that Pseudopodzolic soil was elected by the Estonian Soil Science Society for Estonian year 2018 soil. In the introductory part the special attention is paid to the problems connected with naming of these soils. Although the soil introducing is done after Estonian Soil Classification principles, for characterization of soil properties and functioning the qualifiers of WRB are largely used in it. In the work the two layers of soil (1) the soil humus cover (pro humus form) or humipedon and (2) soil cover or solum as a whole are treated separately. The data on soil properties are presented separately as well for arable and forest soils giving their comparative analysis and dealing with the changes in soil properties in connection with land use change. Substantial part of the work is consecrated (1) to the soil plant cover and to the Enchytraeidae living in forest soils' humipedon, (2) to the soil productivity and peculiarities of their usage in agriculture and forestry, and (3) to the distribution of Pseudopodzolic soils in Estonian soil cover and to the association of Pseudopodzolic soils with other soil species.
  • Kirje
    Axillary shoots derived from shoot tips in in vitro mass propagation of Anoectochilus formosanus hayata
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Winarto, Budi; Samijan
    Axillary shoot proliferation in in vitro mass propagation of Anoectochilus formosanus was successfully established via selection of different explant types, accessions and culture media to plantlet acclimati-zation. In the initiation stage, shoot tips and Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.5 mg l-1 N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.25 mg l-1 α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were determined as high potential explant and medium for axillary shoot regeneration of A-1 and A-2 accessions of A. formosanus compared to others. High axillary shoots up to 7.0 shoots per explant with 1.0 cm shoot height and 9.8 leaves per explant derived from shoot tip explants of A-1 accession were signify-cantly induced and proliferated in MS medium supplemented with 1.25 mg l-1 BAP and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA. Higher root formation up to 2.4 roots per shoot and 1.0 cm root length of A-1 accession was easily prepared on Hyponex medium (2 g l-1 20N:20P:20K) containing 150 ml l-1 coconut water (CW). While high survival rate of acclimatized plantlets as high as 90.4 % was successfully done by planting them in plastic boxes containing a mixture of burned rice-husk and organic manure (1:1, v/v) after 2 months. In the study, it was also revealed that in in vitro culture of A-1 accession of A. formosanus showed higher response compared to A-2 accession in all in vitro culture stages. The successful established protocol expected can be applied for preparing high-quality planting materials for commercial purposes and developing new route of in vitro mass propagation for other species of A. formosanus.
  • Kirje
    Tecamin flower® foliar application to alleviate water deficit effects on growth, yield and water use efficiency of tomato
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Al-Shammari, Aziz Mahdi Abd; Abood, Mohammed Ali; Hamdi, Ghassan Jaafar
    During drought chemical elements in a dry fertilizer go into solution in the soil with difficulty and the nutrients are less available to the plant. Foliar fertilization with Tecamin flower®, could compensate for nutrient deficiency due to water deficit. This study was designed to observe the effects of different application rates of foliar application of Tecamin flower® on growth, yield and field water use efficiency (CWUE) of tomato under water deficit. The field experiment was conducted from March till July 2016 at the teaching and research farm of Diyala University, Iraq. Performance of tomato genotype 'Bobcat', 'Finenss' and 'Hadeer' was assessed by foliar application of Tecamin flower® at (0 and 2.5 mL L-1) and two irrigation levels (50 and 100% based on field capacity). The results showed that chlorophyll content, fruit weight, yield per plant, total yield and CWUE were significantly affected by genotype and irrigations levels and application of Tecamin flower®. 'Bobcat' genotype has the highest value of plant yield (3.39 kg) and total yield (90.19 t ha-1). 'Finenss' has the highest values for number fruit per plant (40.75), CWUE (75.37 kg m-3) and the minimum leaf proline content (2.584 mg g-1). Plant irrigated at 100% had the highest value of number fruit (35.27 fruit), most yield per plant (3.53 kg), total yield (94.02 t ha-1) and minimum leaf proline content (2.557 mg g-1). The highest CWUE (84.50 kg m-3) were at 50% level. Plant treated at 2.5 mL L-1 Tecamin flower® had most fruit/plant (37.61) yield per plant (3.73 kg), total yield (99.16 t ha-1), CWUE (85.22 kg m-3) and minimum leaf proline content (2.437 mg g-1).
  • Kirje
    Escherichia coli O157:H7 esinemine Eesti piimafarmides ja veiseliha tootmise ahelas aastatel 2005–2014
    (Estonian Academic Agricultural Society, 2018) Kramarenko, Toomas; Meremäe, Kadrin; Sõgel, Jelena; Kuningas, Maiu; Vilem, Annika; Häkkinen, Liidia; Mäesaar, Mihkel; Elias, Terje; Roasto, Mati; Eesti Maaülikool. Veterinaarmeditsiini ja loomakasvatuse instituut. Toiduhügieeni ja rahvatervise õppetool; Veterinaar- ja toidulaboratoorium; Veterinaar- ja Toiduamet
    Escherichia coli O157:H7 human infections are mostly associated with consumption of raw or undercooked beef and raw milk. Ruminants, especially cattle are the main reservoir of the pathogen. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle dairy farm and beef production level in Estonia. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 is present at both dairy farm and slaughterhouse level. The occurrence of the pathogen at Estonian dairy farm level was 1.2% from 1312 cattle's sampled. At slaughterhouse level 744 hide swabs were taken from which 30 (4.0%) were positive to E. coli O157:H7. Both stx1 and stx2 genes were determined from isolates and often the combination of both genes was found to be present. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined for 30 E. coli O157:H7 isolates which revealed 26.7% of multiresistance isolates. In 2009–2010 in total of 188 beef samples were analysed, which all were negative for O157:H7.