UAV photogrammetry for volume calculations
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This research assesses the suitability of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry for calculating stockpile volumes and analyses the compliance of the accuracy of results to current laws. In addition two different UAV’s and two different objects are compared and the necessity of using GCP’s (Ground Control Points) is investigated. The time spent on each work stage is also evaluated. Data used in this study was collected in two sites, where the objects differed in shape, colour and texture. The investigated objects were a regularly shaped peat stockpile and an irregularly shaped gravel stockpile. Data was collected with a terrestrial laser scanner, a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) device and two different UAVs. Volume of the models calculated from different data was compared to the volume of the models based on laser scanning data for accuracy assessment. Relative errors of all of the photogrammetric models compared to the laser scanning based model were under 4%. It was concluded that the advantages of UAV based photogrammetry become apparent as the complexity and size of the measured objects grow. Results of the study show that using UAV photogrammetry to determine stockpile volumes is sufficiently accurate with both of the tested UAVs. The results show that without using GCPs (Ground Control Points), sufficient accuracy was still achieved. Nevertheless accuracy was increased by using GCP’s. It was concluded that using UAV’s can significantly reduce the time spent on collecting data for volume calculations, especially when GCP’s are not necessary.