Influence of regional technologies of varying intensity on the bioproductivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation
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This study is oriented to elucidating the role of the basic elements of regional farming systems in soil-crop complex using agricultural technologies of different levels of cultivation of field crops in the Smolensk Region. As a result of monitoring carried out in 1991–2008 on a reference site located in the Smolensk Region, negative changes of soil profile were revealed. Degree of soil podzolization increased what contributed to its degradation. All genetic horizons demonstrated deterioration in the basic parameters of soil fertility. Many years of experience showed a significant influence of the elements of studied technologies on soil acidity parameters, on the level of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium; the amount of humic compounds was, however, characterized by relative stability. According to the total grain harvest of winter rye, spring soft wheat and barley, as well as of the green mass of perennial and annual herbs, studied variants were ranged in the following order: intensive, organic, adaptive, and extensive. Organic technology is suitable for getting environmentally friendly products. Obtained results are recommended to be used in the development of regional technologies of various intensity for the bio-productivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation, as well as in regions with similar soil and climatic conditions. Choice of particular variant is in each case determined by the baseline characteristics of soil, planned level of productivity and harvest quality, availability of material and monetary resources in the economy.