Modeling the impact of weather and climatic conditions and nutrition variants on the yield of spring barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.)
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Crop yield is a result of the interaction between plant genetic traits, soil properties, agrotechnology and climatic regimes. Low yield tend to be formed in regions where it is limited to the extent of water availability, heat stress and the short duration of the grain filling period. High temperature and drought stress are projected to reduce crop yields and threaten food security. The article presents the results of studies on the effectiveness of treatment of spring barley crops with modern growth-regulating drugs on the background of mineral fertilizers, carried out in different weather and climatic conditions in 2013–2017 yrs on the Southern chernozem in the conditions of Steppe of Ukraine. It was studied the influence of weather and climatic conditions, varietal characteristics of spring barley and nutrition variants on the formation of grain yield. It was determined that the cultivation of spring barley, the introduction of pre-sowing cultivation of mineral fertilizer at a dose of N30P30 (background) and the use of crop foliar fertilizing at the beginning of the phase of stooling and earing by the complex organo-mineral fertilizer Escort bio created favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants of the studied varieties, which in turn had a positive effect on grain yield. Thus, according to this variant of nutrition, on average, during the years of research, it was formed the yield of 3.25–3.61 t ha-1 grains depending on the studied variety. Results of researches showed that weather conditions during the years of research significantly influenced on the productivity of spring barley varieties. In 2016 the amount of precipitation was the highest (174.0 mm), the temperature during vegetation of spring barley was +14.9 °C. In 2013 the amount of precipitation was the lowest (67.4 mm), the temperature was +18.5 °C. The lowest crop yield was formed in 2013, and the highest yield was formed in 2016. Studies showed that the influence of weather factors in various interfacial periods of growth and development of spring barley was significant enough for the manifestation of signs of yield and its elements and is more dependent on rainfall.