Biomass yield of silage maize, fertilizers efficiency, and soil properties under different soil-climate conditions and fertilizer treatments
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We evaluated the efficiency (the netto agronomic efficiency – NAE, the physiological efficiency – PE, and the apparent recovery efficiency – ARE) of farmyard manure (FYM) applied alone, and together with mineral N (FYM+N), and NPK (FYM+NPK), on the biomass production of silage maize at three localities (Caslav, Ivanovice, Lukavec) in the Czech Republic, characterised by different soil-climate conditions. The effect of fertilizer treatment on soil chemical properties was also analyzed. After four years of evaluation, the application of FYM resulted in comparable biomass production as in the FYM+N, and FYM+NPK treatments, showing the good ability of the mineralized FYM to provide enough nutrients during the growing season. Increasing doses of applied nutrients were connected with higher biomass production. However, no significant differences were recorded between fertilizer treatments. The efficiency of applied nutrients was higher on soils of worst quality (sandy loamy Cambisol – Lukavec), while lower on naturally fertile loamy degraded Chernozem (Ivanovice). But again, no significant differences between the selected parameters were recorded. Although the application of mineral fertilizers has not increased maize biomass yield significantly, they positively affected soil chemical properties, mainly the soil concentration of P, K, Mg, and soil organic carbon content. This shows the beneficial effect of the application of mineral fertilizers, especially in the Czech Republic, where the application of mineral P and K decreased drastically during the last thirty years.