Development of an efficient regeneration system for bombarded calli from immature embryos of Moroccan durum wheat varieties
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One of the biggest obstacles limiting genetic transformation of durum wheat is the lack of an efficient regeneration system for bombarded tissues. Our study aims to optimize culture conditions for regenerating bombarded calli from immature embryos of four durum wheat varieties ‘Amria’, ‘Chaoui’, ‘Isly’ and ‘Marouane’, through comparing the effects of phytohormones (IAA, zeatin and their interaction) and nitrogen amount and sources on callus induction and plant regeneration. Both tested induction media induced approximately the same rate of induced calli for all the tested varieties. However, the interaction of the induction and the regeneration media showed a highly significant effect on plantlet regeneration for all tested varieties. After bombardment, IM1/RM2 combination proved to be the favourable medium with up to 200% and 120% plantlets regenerated for ‘Chaoui’ and ‘Isly’ varieties respectively. Encouraging results obtained in this study will help to promote the research in genetic transformation and its improvement.