Possibilities for the biological control of yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in winter wheat in Latvia in 2017–2018
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Yellow rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is a significant wheat disease worldwide. In Latvia, the distribution of yellow rust has increased recently and new aggressive races have been identified. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibilities for the biological control of yellow rust in winter wheat. A field trial was established in a biological field of winter wheat in Latvia in 2017 and 2018. Biological products that contained Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aurantiaca, Brevibacillus spp., Acinetobacter spp., and chitosan were used for treatments, and one variant was left untreated. The efficacy of products was evaluated by the AUDPC (area under the disease progress curve) comparison. Differences in the severity of yellow rust between the trial years were observed. In 2018, the severity of yellow rust was lower than in 2017. In untreated plots, on flag leaf, the severity varied from 10.9% to 32.5% in 2017 and from 1.4% to 6.5% in 2018. In 2017, the severity of yellow rust reached its maximum on 05.07. at wheat growth stage (GS) 79, and in 2018 – on 20.06. GS 79. Both in 2017 and 2018, no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found in AUDPC values among the variants. After two years of investigations, the results were not convincing; therefore, further research is needed.