Most appropriate measures for reducing ammonia emissions in Latvia’s pig and poultry housing
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New goals of ammonia emissions reduction for each of EU Member State, including Latvia, were approved by the EU Directive 2016/2284/EU ‘on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants’. Agriculture sector, particularly livestock farming, is the main source of these emissions. Besides, the implementation of modern or intensive animal rearing/breeding technologies causes the increase of emissions in Latvia. Therefore, more effective ammonia abatement measures or techniques should be chosen for implementation in Latvia to reach the objectives. The description and benefits of such measures are provided in the guidelines and recommendations developed and approved by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the European Commission. However, all of these recommendations are not applicable in Latvia. Therefore, the aim of research was to find most appropriate ammonia emissions abatement measures for pig and poultry farming in Latvia. The study was focused on the intensive pig and poultry farming, particularly animal housing. Evaluation or assessment of most appropriate ammonia emissions’ reduction measures was conducted using an expert method. The results of the study indicate that it is possible to ensure reduction of ammonia emissions by comparatively simple and less expensive options that could be more or less easy implemented (e.g. ensuring cleanness in the livestock building, periodical removal of manure, covering of poultry litter or solid manure stockpiles with plastic sheeting, etc.). Even more effective reduction of ammonia emissions can be achieved by implementation of measures, which require significant investments, as well as additional operating costs.