Agricultural residues in Indonesia and Vietnam and their potential for direct combustion: with a focus on fruit processing and plantation crops
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Energy consumption in Indonesia and Vietnam has grown rapidly in recent decades. To meet the energy needs of both countries, a higher utilisation of waste biomass sources may represent an adequate solution. Investigated samples represent major crop residues (waste biomass) originating mainly from the agriculture sector of the selected countries. Herbaceous waste biomass from Indonesia is, namely, cassava stems and root peelings ( Manihot esculenta ), coffee leaves ( Coffea arabica ), cacao leaves ( Theobroma cacao ), banana leaves ( Musa acuminata ), bamboo leaves ( Bambusoideae spp.) and aloe vera leaves ( Aloe vera ). Furthermore, fruit and aquatic waste biomass originating from Vietnam is, specifically, sugarcane bagasse ( Saccharum officinarum ), durian peelings ( Durio zibethinus ), rambutan peelings ( Nephelium lappaceum ), banana peelings ( Musa acuminata ), water milfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) and water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ). All mentioned types of waste biomass were subjected to proximate and calorimetric analysis: moisture, ash and volatile matter contents (%) and higher and lower heating values (MJ kg – 1 ). Obtained values indicated the highest level of ash content in fruit bioma ss samples in the case of sugarcane bagasse (0.84%), in herbaceous biomass in the case of cassava stems (3.14%) and in aquatic biomass in the case of water hyacinth (14.16%). The highest levels of lower heating values were achieved by following samples (be st samples from each biomass type): cassava stems (17.5 MJ kg – 1 ); banana peelings (17.3 MJ kg – 1 ) and water hyacinth (12.8 MJ kg – 1 ). The overall evaluation of all observed samples indicated that the best suitability for energy utilisation by direct combusti on of investigated representatives is fruit waste biomass, followed by herbaceous waste biomass and then aquatic waste biomass.