The development of gluten - free sourdough bread technology with rowan powder
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A new form of technology was developed which focussed on gluten - free bread with gluten - free sourdough and rowan powder (from the botanical species Sorbus aucuparia ). This new form of technology allows organoleptic characteristics to be improved, along wit h structure, texture, microbial spoilage resistance, and the shelf life of gluten - free bread. The gluten - free dry microbial composition with lactic acid bacteria was developed as a starter for sourdough. The lactic acid bacteria, L. brevis E38 , was experim entally selected for dry microbial composition on the basis of its antagonistic activity against ropy bread disease pathogens ( B. subtilis and B. licheniformis ). The dependence was revealed of the accumulation of acetic acid and lactic acid in the sourdoug h on the microbial composition during fermentation. A gluten - free sourdough technology was developed which involved a new starter, rice, and soy flour at a ratio of 0.2:2:1. It was shown that the use of soy protein slows down the fermentation process in th e sourdough. An increase – in acidity levels of between 7.5 – 9.5 times higher in the dough with sourdough and rowan powder when compared to dough without sourdough. Sourdough usage allowed compressibility of the crumb to be increased by between 1.8 – 2 times, with a specific volume of 19.0% and a porosity of 9.8% and 11.5%, and for the sensory characteristics to be improved as perceived by consumers. It was proved that microbial composition with a lactic acid bacteria, L. brevis E38 , inhibits ropy disease and mould development in bread. The results of the present study showed that the addition of sourdough and rowan powder can be used to improve the quality of gluten - free bread.