Eesti järvetervendusprojektide tulemuslikkus ja meetmete tõhusus
Senises järvede tervendamise praktikas pole tehtud tervendamismeetodite otstarbekuse analüüsi. Viimane on vajalik nii rahastajale kui ka tellijale, hindamaks, kas kasutatud rahaliste ressursside rakendamine on olnud põhjendatud. Magistritöö eesmärk on analüüsida SA Keskkonnainvesteeringute Keskuse toetatud järvede tervendusprojekte ning hinnata meetmete tõhusust tulenevalt nende efektiivsusest ja maksumusest. Töö põhineb kvalitatiivsel ja kvantitatiivsel sisuanalüüsil, sidudes ökosüsteemiteenuste väärtused tervendustööde maksumusega. Kasutatud metoodika on välja töötatud käesoleva uurimistöö koostamise käigus. Uuritud järvetervendusprojektide tulemuslikkust ei hinnatud ühelgi korral hindega „väga hea“. Hinnangule „hea“ vastas tulemuslikkus nelja järve puhul. Need olid Varstu järv, Roobioru lump ning Kaarmise ja Kadrina paisjärved. Kambja paisjärve ning Arbi järve tervendusprojektid said hinnangu „mõõdukas“. Hinnangu „halb“ said neli tervendatud järve: Hellenurme, Haage ja Ilmatsalu paisjärved ning Mäha järv. Hinnangu „väga halb“ said kaks projekti, mis hõlmasid Alatskivi ja Kentsi paisjärvesid. Ökosüsteemiteenuste väärtuste muutused toimusid kõikide projektide osas. Lõplike tulemusi mõjutasid ökosüsteemiteenuste väärtuste hinnangute määrad projektile eelneval ning järgneval perioodil. Samuti mõjutas tulemusi see, mil määral ökosüsteemiteenuste väärtused olid pärast projekti muutunud. Kasutatud metoodikat on võimalik kasutada majanduslike analüüside tegemisel, saamaks teada, millised on tervendusprojektide kitsaskohad ning kas tervendamisprojektidesse paigutatud vahendid on põhjendatud. Ühtlasi on võimalik metoodikat arendada täpsemate tulemuste saamiseks ökosüsteemiteenuste valdkondade kaupa.The subject of this thesis is derived from the fact that in lake restoration history, lake restoration cost effectiveness linking the total cost of the project and the efficiency of the lake restoration measures has not been researched. At the same time, this kind of research is essential for the contributor and planner to evaluate if the used financial resources have been reasonable. The aim of this study was to analyze the Estonian lake restoration projects that have been financed by Enviornmental Investment Centre from 2004 to 2011. Additionally, the purpose of this paper was to ebaluate the efficiency of the applied lake restoration measures and associate the results with the total cost of lake restoration projects. The results of this study are based on the analysis of 11 Estonian lake restoration projects. For that purpose the factors that contribute to lake degradation, lake restoration objectives and lake restoration measures were analyzed. The results are illustrated in spreadsheets. Firstly, when processing the results, values were formed into generalized groups which were analyzed to ascertain the ecosystem services provided by the lake and its nearest surrounding. Secondly, values were given to ecosystem services before and after the implementation of the lake restoration measures. Furthermore, the values of ecosystem services were linked to the total costs of the projects in order to express the reasonability of expenditures. The hypothesis of this master thesis is as follows: Resources used for lake restoration are rational and reasonable. This hypothesis was not entirely confirmed. The cost effectiveness of investigated lake restoration projects was not evaluated as very good on none of the occasions. The result very good indicate that the investments made to contribute lake restoration are entirely reasonable as the financial resources constitute 90- 100% of the total cost of the project. The cost effectiveness was evaluated as good on two occasions. These are the restoration project of lake Varstu and Roobioru lump and also the restoration of lake Kaarmise. The cost effectiveness of restoration projects of lakes Kadrina, Arbi and Kambja were evaluated as moderate. The cost effectiveness of the lake restoration projects was evaluated as bad in case of restoring lakes Hellenurme, Haage, Ilmatsalu and Mäha. In case of these projects, the lake condition did not improve nor deteriorate after the implementation of the project. The cost effectiveness was evaluated as very bad in case of restoring lakes Alatskivi and Kentsi. Therefore, investments made in lake restoration projects were not evaluated reasonable as the lake ecological conditions did not improve. Furthermore, after the restoration of lake Alatskivi, degradation followed. The results good and moderate indicate that the investments made to contribute lake restoration have been reasonable as the financial resources constitute almost half of the total cost of the Project (40-89%). At the same time, a bad result indicates that 20-39% of the invested finances were reasonable, whereas on the occasion of very bad results only 0-19% of the invested finances were reasonable. The values of ecosystem services changed more or less in case of all the projects. Not only the rates of the values of ecosystem services before and after the implementation, but the difference in the rate changes affected the final results. Above all, a pre and post project monitoring report is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of lake restoration. The report is vital as it will be used to choose a course of action and the data will form the benchmark against which future studies will be compared. In addition, appropriate predictive methods allow realistic expetations. There are many methods available to restore degraded lakes, but during implementation of the project these technologies must also be monitored to evaluate their effeiciency and ensure long-term effects. Moreover, it is essential to ensure the feasibility of the restoration by developing goals appropriately for each project. There is also need for the harmonization of terminology in the field of ecological restoration. To conclude, wetlands are higly valued ecosystems and the ecosystem services are for the public good. To ensure the continous provision of ecosystem services, it is important to take their values into account while planning the restoration projects. The need for futher studies is underpinned by the fact that the results of this thesis are generalised by ecosystem services and lake restoration projects. The method used in this thesis to evaluate the cost efficiency of lake restoration projects could be developed in the need for more precise and thorough results. For example, the values of ecosystem services could be evaluated by their types. Also, the cost effectiveness results would be more profound if the research would be about one specific lake restoration project. The method used in this thesis could be implemented in making economic analyses to ascertain if the financial resources have been reasonable and thereby take the results into consideration also in future planning.