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dc.contributor.advisorÖöpik, Merle
dc.contributor.authorVene, Katri
dc.date.accessioned2015-05-18T07:18:31Z
dc.date.available2015-05-18T07:18:31Z
dc.date.issued2015
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10492/1928
dc.description.abstractUurimistöö eesmärgiks on välja selgitada keskkonnaministri määrusega „Looduslikku tasakaalu ohustavate võõrliikide nimekiri“ (RTL 2004, 134, 2076) kinnitatud võõrliikide mõju inimese tervisele ja heaolule. Määruses on nimetatud 43 looduslikku tasakaalu ohustavat liiki, kelle hulgast on selekteeritud need liigid, kes on ohtlikud inimese tervisele. Ohtlikeks kvalifitseeritud liikide kohta on kogutud täpne info kahe tunnusgrupi alusel: 1. Üldinfo (liigi ladinakeelne ja eesti keelne nimi, taksonoomiline kuuluvus sugukonna alusel, päritolumaa, levikutihedus Eestis); 2. Mõju inimese tervisele (patogeensus, infektsioonid, traumad, allergiad). Saadud andmed on esitatud koondtabelitena. Uurimistöö tulemustest võib järeldada, et 43- st liigist 14 põhjustavad inimesel haigustunnuseid. Taimeliigid (nt. perekond ambroosia kõik liigid, Sosnovski karuputk jne.) põhjustavad allergiaid, dermatiiti ning eritavad biotoksiine. Selgrootutest loomades esindatud signaalvähk on kooriklooma- allergia põhjustajaks ning selgroogsed loomad on kõige sagedasemad nakkushaiguste ja parasiitide siirutajad Eesti looduses. Loomaliigid võivad olla ka otsese ründe või kaudselt traumajärgsete vigastuste põhjustajateks (kabehirv ja tähnikhirv on liikluses avariide põhjustajad). Kokkuvõtvalt võib väita, et looduslikku tasakaalu ohustavate liikide hulgas on ligikaudu kolmandik selliseid, kes kujutavad otsest ohtu ka inimese tervisele, kusjuures käsitletud ei ole kaudset mõju inimese heaolule läbi ökosüsteemiteenuste ning arvesse ei ole võetud majanduslikku heaolu. Antud uurimistööd on võimalik kasutada edasiste uurimistööde algallikana nii loodusteaduste kui epidemioloogia valdkonnas.est
dc.description.abstractThe objective of this paper is to describe the impact that introduced species included on the ‘List of Introduced Species that may Disrupt the Natural Balance’ (RTL 2004, 134, 2076) approved by the Minister of Environment may have on human health and well-being. Of the 43 species included in the regulation listing species that may disrupt the natural balance, only those posing a risk to human health have been selected for the purposes of this paper. Specific information gathered on the species classified as dangerous falls under two categories: 1. general information (the name of the species in Latin and Estonian, its taxonomic rank at the family level, country of origin and distribution in Estonia); 2. impact on human health (pathogenicity, infections, trauma and allergies). Analysis of source literature revealed which of the species that potentially disrupt the natural balance may also have an impact on human health. The species are as follows: giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum); Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi); all species of the genus Ambrosia (Ambrosia spp.) represented in Estonia; Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis); giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea); American beaver (Castor canadensis); fallow deer (Dama dama); racoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides); muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus); grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis); sika deer (Cervus nippon); white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); argali (Ovis ammon); and signal crayfish (Pacifascatus leniusculus). In summary, it can be said that 14 of the 43 species that may disrupt the natural balance in Estonia pose a danger to human health. Five plant species in Estonia’s natural environment are allergens (species of the genus Ambrosia and goldenrod) and sources of biotoxins (giant hogweed and Sosnowsky’s hogweed). Animal species are mainly vectors of infectious diseases as well as vectors and intermediate hosts of parasites. Animals may also cause trauma whether by direct attack or incidentally by being involved in traffic accidents. Most often they transmit the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferia, causing Lyme disease. The high prevalence of tick-borne diseases in Estonia calls for controlling the population of introduced species. As for nematodes, the most common are tapeworms, roundworms and flukes. Animals also transmit such diseases as bluetongue and poxvirus, which are quite rare in the human population. Humans becoming infected with these diseases has only been demonstrated in laboratory conditions and their transmission from animal to human has not been recorded. The American beaver originating from North America serves as a carrier of tularaemia, a disease highly dangerous to people, but as the species does not occur in a natural setting in Estonia, the risk it poses to human health can be considered insignificant. Plant and animal species that do not pose an immediate threat to human health have a major indirect impact on our well-being through ecosystem services. For example, Russian knapweed is dangerous to cattle and especially to horses. Introduced fish species are effective bioaccumulators of heavy metals, and the ruddy duck may serve as a carrier of introduced tick species. In conclusion, it can be said that around one-third of the species that may disrupt the natural balance pose an immediate threat to human health, whereas neither the indirect impact on human well-being through ecosystem services nor economic well-being were considered. This study can serve as a basis for further research in the field of natural sciences as well as epidemiology.eng
dc.subjectbakalaureusetöödEST
dc.subjectvõõrliigidEST
dc.subjectohtlikkusEST
dc.subjectinimeneEST
dc.subjecttervisEST
dc.subjectpatogeensusEST
dc.subjectnakkusedEST
dc.subjecttraumadEST
dc.subjectallergiaEST
dc.titleVõõrliikidega kaasnevad ohud inimese terviseleest
dc.title.alternativeHazards of alien species to human healtheng
dc.typeBachelor Thesis
dc.date.defensed2015-06-03


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