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dc.contributor.advisorKurina, Olavi
dc.contributor.authorBurtin, Viktoria
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-02T10:21:29Z
dc.date.available2014-06-02T10:21:29Z
dc.date.issued2014
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10492/1604
dc.description.abstractPistesääsklasi kui välisparasiite ning haiguste siirutajaid uuris Eestis põhjalikumalt Prof. H. Remm 1950. aastatel. Möödunud poolsajandiga on muutunud pistesääsklaste nomenklatuur ning tõenäoliselt ka siinne liigiline koosseis. Vananenud nimed on Eestis kasutusel praeguseni ning puudub kaasaegne ülevaade pistesääsklaste liigilisest koosseisust. Reisimine, väliskaubandus ning kliima muutumine on kaasa aidanud osade liikide levila muutumisele. Mitmed liigid siirutavad inimestele erinevaid haigusi, millest osad on olulised ka Eesti kontekstis. Linnad kui tiheda asustusega paigad on haiguspuhangute ilmnemisel eriti haavatavad, mistõttu valiti uurimisalaks linnaruum (täpsemalt Tartu). 1. Eestis siiani kasutuselolevad pistesääsklaste vananenud nimed viidi kooskõlla valiidsete nimedega. Tänapäevase käsitluse järgi ei ole Anopheles maculipennis liik, vaid lähedaste liikide rühm (= An. maculipennis s.l.), kuhu kuuluvad Eestis sedastatud liikidest An. maculipennis s.s. ja Anopheles messeae ning tõenäoliselt esinevatest liikidest An. atroparvus ja An. beklemishevi. Metsasääsed (perekonna endine nimetus Aëdes) jagunevad alates 2000. aastast kahte perekonda – Aedes ja Ochlerotatus. Tähtsamad nimemuutused on ka: An. bifurcatus -> An. claviger; Culex exilis -> Culex torrentium; Cx. apicalis -> Cx. territans; perekond Mansonia -> perekond Coquillettidia ja perekond Theobaldia -> perekond Culiseta. Selgus, et andmebaasi Fauna Europaea Eestis esinevate pistesääsklaste nimistust puudub siin tegelikkuses üks tavalisemaid liike – Oc. cantans. An. maculipennis rühmast esineb siin suure tõenäosusega rohkem liike kui varem arvati. Seega ei pea Fauna Europaea poolt hetkel pakutav Eesti pistesääsklaste liikide arv 32 paika ning siin esineb seniste teadmiste põhjal 33, tegelikkuses aga vähemalt 35 või enam liiki. 2. Tartu linnaruumist püüti kahaga 2013. aasta kevadest hilissügiseni 6-st põhi- ning 8-st lisapüügipunktist kokku 691 pistesääsklaste valmikut. Morfoloogiliste tunnuste põhjal määrati 17 liiki. Nendeks olid: Aedes cinereus; Ae. vexans; Anopheles claviger s.s.; An. maculipennis s.l.; Coquillettidia richiardii; Culex pipiens s.s.; Cx. torrentium; Cx. territans; Culiseta annulata; Ochlerotatus annulipes; Oc. cantans; Oc. communis; Oc. diantaeus; Oc. excrucians; Oc. flavescens; Oc. intrudens; Oc. punctor. Eesti mõistes uusi liike ei tuvastatud, kuid haigusi on võimelised siirutama ka eelmainitud liigid. 3. Kaheksat liiki püüti kõikidest põhipüügipunktidest. Kõige arvukamad liigid olid Oc. communis (146 isendit), Oc. intrudens (108 isendit) ja Oc. cantans (107 isendit). Vaid ühest punktist püütud liigid olid An. claviger s.s., Oc. diantaeus, Oc. flavescens ja Cs. annulata. Isendite arvu poolest püüti kõige rohkem pistesääsklasi punktist 4 (jõeäärne võsa Supilinnas) ja 5 (Tähtvere park) vastavalt 185 ja 153 ning kõige vähem punktist 2 (Raadi kalmistu). Püütud liikide arv oli suurim (13) punktides 2 ja 4 ning väikseim (8) punktis 6 (Maarjamõisa park). Shannon-Wiener’i indeksi väärtus oli suurim (1,94) punktis 2 ning väikseim (1,65) punktis 1 (Raadi karjäär). Püügiperioodi esimeses pooles domineerisid perekond Ochlerotatus emasloomad ning teises pooles perekond Culex isasloomad. Pistesääsklaste bioloogiline mitmekesisus oli suurem kõrge ja tiheda valdavalt lehtpuurinde ja liigirikka põõsarindega püügipunktides. Suure-Emajõe kauguse ja pistesääsklaste isendite arvu vahel püügipunktides seoseid ei leitud.est
dc.description.abstractMosquitoes as troublesome parasites and pathogen vectors spread and are well known around the world. The last time they were thoroughly studied in Estonia was 1950s (by Professor Hans Remm). Since then the nomenclature and probably the list of local mosquito species has changed. Many outdated names are still being used in Estonia and no one knows whether new mosquito species have emerged or previous ones withdrawn. It has been observed that travelling, international trade and climate change have caused alterations in habitat range of some mosquito species. Many of those mosquito species are vectors of such human diseases as malaria, Tularaemia, Sindbis virus, yellow fever etc. Some of the diseases also concern Estonia. Cities as densely populated areas are especially vulnerable during disease outbreaks. Therefore this research was also carried out in a city (namely Tartu). The set research goals led to the following results. 1. Outdated mosquito names used in Estonia were replaced with the valid and globally accepted ones. Anopheles maculipennis is not one species but a complex of species (=An maculipennis s.l.) from which in Estonia appear Anopheles (Anopheles) maculipennis Meigen, 1818 s.s. and Anopheles (Anopheles) messeae Falleroni, 1926 and assumably appear Anopheles (Anopheles) atroparvus van Thiel, 1927 and Anopheles (Anopheles) beklemishevi Stegnii & Kabanova, 1976. Since the year 2000 genus Aedes is split into two genera – Aedes and Ochlerotatus. Other important changes are: Anopheles bifurcatus -> Anopheles claviger; Culex exilis -> Culex torrentium; Culex apicalis -> Culex territans; genus Mansonia -> genus Coquillettidia and genus Theobaldia -> genus Culiseta. It turned out that one of the most common mosquito species in Estonia - Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) cantans (Meigen, 1818) – is missing from the list of Estonian mosquito species in Fauna Europaea database. It is likely that more species appear here from the Anopheles maculipennis complex than it was previously assumed. Therefore the number of Estonian mosquito species (32) in Fauna Europaea is not correct and here are most probably 35 or more species. 2. In the year 2013 (from spring until late autumn) 691 adult mosquitoes were caught from 6 permanent and 8 random sampling sites in Tartu. By morphological characters 17 species were identified. They were: Aedes (Aedes) cinereus Meigen, 1818; Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen, 1830); Anopheles (Anopheles) claviger (Meigen, 1804) s.s.; Anopheles (Anopheles) maculipennis Meigen, 1818 s.l.; Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889); Culex (Culex) pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 s.s.; Culex (Culex) torrentium Martini, 1925; Culex (Neoculex) territans Walker, 1856; Culiseta (Culiseta) annulata (Schrank, 1776); Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) annulipes (Meigen, 1830); Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) cantans (Meigen, 1818); Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) communis (De Geer, 1776); Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) diantaeus (Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1912); Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) excrucians (Walker, 1856); Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) flavescens (Muller, 1764); Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) intrudens (Dyar, 1919); Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) punctor (Kirby, 1837). One species – Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918) – could not be positively identified by morphological characters. New species were not identified but there are disease vectors amongst the afore-mentioned ones as well. 3. Eight species were caught from all of the permanent sampling sites. The most abundant were Oc. communis (146 specimens), Oc. intrudens (108 specimens) and Oc. cantans (107 specimens). Species caught from only one sampling site were An. claviger s.s., Oc. diantaeus, Oc. flavescens and Cs. annulata. The most specimens (185 and 153) were caught from sampling site No. 4 (riverside thicket) and No. 5 (Tähtvere Park) and the least specimens from sampling site No. 2 (Raadi cemetery). The most species (13) were caught from the sampling sites No. 2 and No. 4; and the least species (8) from the sampling site No. 6 (Maarjamõisa Park). The value of Shannon-Wiener diversity index was the highest (1,94) in the sampling site No. 2 and the lowest (1,65) in the sampling site No. 1 (former Raadi gravel-pit). Female Ochlerotatus species dominated during the first half of the sampling period and male Culex species during the second half. The least specimens were caught near open spaces. Biological diversity was greater in the sampling sites with high deciduous trees and diverse bush species. The relation between the distance of the river (Suur-Emajõgi) and the number of mosquito specimens could not be detected.eng
dc.subjectpistesääsklasedEST
dc.subjecthaigusedEST
dc.subjectnomenklatuuridEST
dc.subjectliigiline koosseisEST
dc.subjectelupaigadEST
dc.subjectTartuEST
dc.subjectmagistritöödEST
dc.titlePistesääsklaste (Diptera: Culicidae) liigiline koosseis ja elupaigaeelistused Tartu linnasest
dc.title.alternativeMosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species Diversity and Habitat Preference in Tartu Cityeng
dc.typeMaster Thesis
dc.date.defensed2014-06-11


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